Meiosis Formation of Gametes Eggs Sperm Facts About

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Meiosis Formation of Gametes (Eggs & Sperm)

Meiosis Formation of Gametes (Eggs & Sperm)

Facts About Meiosis ü Preceded by interphase which includes replication ü Two meiotic divisions

Facts About Meiosis ü Preceded by interphase which includes replication ü Two meiotic divisions --Meiosis I and Meiosis II ü Original cell is diploid (2 n) ü Four daughter cells produced that are haploid (1 n)

Facts About Meiosis ü Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the

Facts About Meiosis ü Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the original cell ü Produces gametes (eggs & sperm) ü Occurs in the testes in males (Spermatogenesis) ü Occurs in the ovaries in females (Oogenesis)

More Meiosis Facts ü Start with 46 double stranded chromosomes (2 n) üAfter 1

More Meiosis Facts ü Start with 46 double stranded chromosomes (2 n) üAfter 1 division - 23 double stranded chromosomes (n) üAfter 2 nd division - 23 single stranded chromosomes (n) ü Occurs in our germ cells that produce gametes

Why Do we Need Meiosis? ü It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction

Why Do we Need Meiosis? ü It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction ü Two haploid (1 n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2 n) zygote

Fertilization – “Putting it all together” 2 n = 6 1 n =3

Fertilization – “Putting it all together” 2 n = 6 1 n =3

Replication of Chromosomes ü Replication is the Occurs in process of Interphase duplicating a

Replication of Chromosomes ü Replication is the Occurs in process of Interphase duplicating a chromosome ü Occurs prior to division ü Replicated copies are called sister chromatids ü Held together at centromere

A Replicated Chromosome Gene X Homologs (same genes, different alleles) Sister Chromatids (same genes,

A Replicated Chromosome Gene X Homologs (same genes, different alleles) Sister Chromatids (same genes, same alleles) Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles separate.

Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half ü Fertilization

Meiosis Forms Haploid Gametes Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half ü Fertilization then restores the 2 n number ü from mom from dad child too much! meiosis reduces genetic content The right number!

Meiosis: Two Part Cell Division Sister chromatids separate Homologs separate Meiosis II Diploid Haploid

Meiosis: Two Part Cell Division Sister chromatids separate Homologs separate Meiosis II Diploid Haploid

Meiosis I: Reduction Division Nucleus Early Late Prophase I (Chromosome Prophase I number doubled)

Meiosis I: Reduction Division Nucleus Early Late Prophase I (Chromosome Prophase I number doubled) Spindle fibers Nuclear envelope Metaphase Anaphase Telophase I I I (diploid)

Prophase I Early prophase- Late prophase. Chromosomes Crossing over condense

Prophase I Early prophase- Late prophase. Chromosomes Crossing over condense

Tetrads Form in Prophase I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join together

Tetrads Form in Prophase I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join together

Crossing-Over Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other ü Pieces of chromosomes

Crossing-Over Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other ü Pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged ü Produces Genetic recombination in the offspring ü

Homologous Chromosomes During Crossing-Over

Homologous Chromosomes During Crossing-Over

Crossing-Over Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent

Crossing-Over Crossing-over multiplies the already huge number of different gamete types produced by independent assortment

Metaphase I Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell

Metaphase I Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell

Anaphase I Homologs separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at

Anaphase I Homologs separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres.

Telophase I Nuclear envelopes reassemble. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

Telophase I Nuclear envelopes reassemble. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

Meiosis II Gene X Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the

Meiosis II Gene X Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the cell Sister chromatids carry identical genetic information. Meiosis II produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene.

Meiosis II: Reducing Chromosome Number Prophase Metaphase II Telophase II Anaphase II II 4

Meiosis II: Reducing Chromosome Number Prophase Metaphase II Telophase II Anaphase II II 4 haploid cells

Prophase II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms.

Prophase II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms.

Metaphase II Chromosomes align along equator of cell.

Metaphase II Chromosomes align along equator of cell.

Anaphase II Equator Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.

Anaphase II Equator Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.

Telophase II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

Telophase II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two.

Results of Meiosis Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy

Results of Meiosis Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy of each chromosome One allele of each gene Different combinations of alleles for different genes along the chromosome

Meiosis in males and females “Sexual Reproduction”

Meiosis in males and females “Sexual Reproduction”

Meiosis in males ü Occurs in the testes ü Two divisions produce 4 spermatids

Meiosis in males ü Occurs in the testes ü Two divisions produce 4 spermatids ü Spermatids mature into sperm ü Men produce about 250, 000 sperm per day

Meiosis in the Testes Spermatid

Meiosis in the Testes Spermatid

Meiosis in females ü Occurs in the ovaries ü Two divisions produce 3 cells

Meiosis in females ü Occurs in the ovaries ü Two divisions produce 3 cells that die and 1 egg ü 3 cells die because of unequal division of cytoplasm Starting at puberty, one egg matures into an ovum (egg) every 28 days

Meisosis in the Ovaries

Meisosis in the Ovaries

Oogenesis First polar body may divide (haploid) a Mitosis Oogonium (diploid) X A X

Oogenesis First polar body may divide (haploid) a Mitosis Oogonium (diploid) X A X Primary oocyte (diploid) X Eggs die a X a a X Meiosis II (if fertilization A occurs) X A X Secondary oocyte (haploid) Ovum (egg) Mature egg A X Egg dies

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis

Comparison of Divisions Mitosis Number of divisions Number of daughter cells Genetically identical? 1

Comparison of Divisions Mitosis Number of divisions Number of daughter cells Genetically identical? 1 Meiosis 2 2 4 Yes No Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germ cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Growth and repair Sexual reproduction Chromosome # Role