MEIOSIS FORMATION OF GAMETES 1 FACTS ABOUT MEIOSIS

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MEIOSIS FORMATION OF GAMETES 1

MEIOSIS FORMATION OF GAMETES 1

FACTS ABOUT MEIOSIS § § Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as

FACTS ABOUT MEIOSIS § § Daughter cells contain half the number of chromosomes as the original cell (haploid or 1 n). Produces gametes § § Egg and sperm Occurs in the testes in males § § spermatogenesis Occurs in the ovaries in females § Oogenesis 2

WHY DO WE NEED MEIOSIS? § It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction

WHY DO WE NEED MEIOSIS? § It is the fundamental basis of sexual reproduction Two haploid (1 n) gametes are brought together through fertilization to form a diploid (2 n) zygote § Promotes genetic diversity § 3

FERTILIZATION: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 2 n = 6 1 n =3 4

FERTILIZATION: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 2 n = 6 1 n =3 4

REPLICATION OF CHROMOSOMES § Occurs in Interphase Replication is the process of duplicating a

REPLICATION OF CHROMOSOMES § Occurs in Interphase Replication is the process of duplicating a chromosome Occurs prior to division § Replicated copies are called sister chromatids § Held together at centromere § 5

CHROMOSOME Gene X Homologs Same genes, different alleles (traits) Sister Chromatids Same genes, Same

CHROMOSOME Gene X Homologs Same genes, different alleles (traits) Sister Chromatids Same genes, Same alleles (traits) Homologs separate in meiosis I and therefore different alleles (traits) separate. 6

MEIOSIS FORMS HAPLOID GAMETES § Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half §

MEIOSIS FORMS HAPLOID GAMETES § Meiosis must reduce the chromosome number by half § Fertilization then restores the 2 n number from mom from dad child too much! meiosis reduces genetic content The right number! 7

MEIOSIS: TWO PART CELL DIVISION Sister chromatids separate Homologs separate Meiosis II Diploid 8

MEIOSIS: TWO PART CELL DIVISION Sister chromatids separate Homologs separate Meiosis II Diploid 8 Haploid

MEIOSIS I: REDUCTION DIVISION Spindle fibers Nucleus Early Prophase I (Chromosome number doubled) Late

MEIOSIS I: REDUCTION DIVISION Spindle fibers Nucleus Early Prophase I (Chromosome number doubled) Late Prophase I Nuclear envelope Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I (diploid) 9

PROPHASE I Early prophase Homologs pair. Crossing over occurs Late prophase §Chromosomes condense. §Spindle

PROPHASE I Early prophase Homologs pair. Crossing over occurs Late prophase §Chromosomes condense. §Spindle forms. §Nuclear envelope 10 fragments.

TETRADS FORM IN PROPHASE I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join to form

TETRADS FORM IN PROPHASE I Homologous chromosomes (each with sister chromatids) Join to form a TETRAD Called Synapsis 11

CROSSING-OVER § § § Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other Pieces

CROSSING-OVER § § § Homologous chromosomes in a tetrad cross over each other Pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged Produces genetic recombination in the offspring 12

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES DURING CROSSING-OVER 13

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES DURING CROSSING-OVER 13

CROSSING-OVER 14

CROSSING-OVER 14

METAPHASE I Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell 15

METAPHASE I Homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell 15

ANAPHASE I Homologs separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at

ANAPHASE I Homologs separate and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres. 16

TELOPHASE I Nuclear envelopes reassemble. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two. 17

TELOPHASE I Nuclear envelopes reassemble. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell into two. 17

MEIOSIS II Gene X Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the

MEIOSIS II Gene X Only one homolog of each chromosome is present in the cell. Sister chromatids carry identical genetic information. Meiosis II produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene. 18

MEIOSIS II: REDUCING CHROMOSOME NUMBER Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II 4

MEIOSIS II: REDUCING CHROMOSOME NUMBER Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II 4 haploid cells 19

PROPHASE II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms. 20

PROPHASE II Nuclear envelope fragments. Spindle forms. 20

METAPHASE II Chromosomes align along equator of cell. 21

METAPHASE II Chromosomes align along equator of cell. 21

ANAPHASE II Equator Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles. 22

ANAPHASE II Equator Pole Sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles. 22

TELOPHASE II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes uncoil. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell 23 into

TELOPHASE II Nuclear envelope assembles. Chromosomes uncoil. Spindle disappears. Cytokinesis divides cell 23 into two.

RESULTS OF MEIOSIS Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy

RESULTS OF MEIOSIS Gametes (egg & sperm) form Four haploid cells with one copy of each chromosome One allele of each gene Different combinations of alleles for different genes along the chromosome 24

GAMETOGENESIS 25

GAMETOGENESIS 25

SPERMATOGENESIS § Occurs in the testes Two divisions produce 4 spermatids § Spermatids mature

SPERMATOGENESIS § Occurs in the testes Two divisions produce 4 spermatids § Spermatids mature into sperm § § Men produce about 250, 000 sperm per day 26

SPERMATOGENESIS 27

SPERMATOGENESIS 27

OOGENESIS § Occurs in the ovaries § Two divisions produce 3 polar bodies that

OOGENESIS § Occurs in the ovaries § Two divisions produce 3 polar bodies that die and 1 egg § § Polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm Immature egg called oocyte § Starting at puberty, one oocyte matures into an ovum (egg) every 28 days 28

OOGENESIS First polar body may divide (haploid) a X a Mitosis Oogonium (diploid) A

OOGENESIS First polar body may divide (haploid) a X a Mitosis Oogonium (diploid) A X X Primary oocyte (diploid) Polar bodies die X Meiosis II (if fertilization occurs) A X Secondary oocyte (haploid) Ovum (egg) A Mature egg X Second polar body (haploid) 29

COMPARISON OF DIVISIONS Mitosis Meiosis 2 Number of divisions 1 Number of daughter cells

COMPARISON OF DIVISIONS Mitosis Meiosis 2 Number of divisions 1 Number of daughter cells 2 4 Yes No Same as parent Half of parent Where Somatic cells Germ cells When Throughout life At sexual maturity Genetically identical? Chromosome # Role Growth and repair Sexual reproduction 30

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WWhat are the four steps to the cell cycle? In which step does the

WWhat are the four steps to the cell cycle? In which step does the nucleus content divide? What is it called when you divide the cytoplasm? T/F All cell division happens at the same rate. What limits the size of cell? In mitosis, cytokinesis produces two identical>>>> 32

The. The process of organizing and condensing long strands of DNA into compact form

The. The process of organizing and condensing long strands of DNA into compact form takes place when? What are the group of proteins called that organizes and condenses the long strands of DNA into tight coils? During which phase of mitosis do sister chromatids separate from each other? What stage completes the cell cycle? A liver cell is an example of which type of cell? 33

How many chromosomes are in a human gamete? What does it mean to be

How many chromosomes are in a human gamete? What does it mean to be homologous? When are haploid gametes produced? At fertilization, what happens to the nucleus? What is the result of Meiosis I? What happens to sister chromatids in meiosis II? Gametogenesis is the term for? ? 34

Does the egg or the sperm carry the organelles for the fertilized cell? What

Does the egg or the sperm carry the organelles for the fertilized cell? What is replication? What is the main function of DNA polymerase? What does it mean to be semi-conservative? What is the ‘Central Dogma’? What is the RNA strand for GTAGTCA? 35

What is the term for a three nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino

What is the term for a three nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid? How many amino acids are used to make the proteins in the human body? A t. RNA that carries the amino acid methionine pairs with what type of codon? What is the name for converting the m. RNA into a polypeptide? Where does translation occur? 36