- Slides: 31
Meiosis EQ: How is meiosis different from mitosis?
WHAT IS MEIOSIS?
I. Overview Organisms can reproduce asexually (DNA from only one parent, identical) or sexually (DNA from two parents) Asexual(mitosis) Sexual (meiosis)
Body cells of every species have a characteristic number of chromosomes. Human have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each body cell
A cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes (2 n) are diploid. In humans, body cells are diploid (2 n)
Human sex cells (gametes) (egg/sperm) are haploid and contain 23 individual chromosomes (half the number of a diploid body cell).
• Why is it important that gametes be haploid?
• Meiosis is a reproductive process that produces 4 cells in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is reduced by half (haploid).
Homologous Pair • Chromosomes Pairing Body cells contain 46 chromosomes These 46 cells are arranged in 23 pairs Each of these pairs is called a homologous pair. Each pair contains chromosomes that are exactly alike in size, with one exception.
Phases of Meiosis Before meiosis begin the cell is in interphase (growth and development phase). Just like in mitosis the DNA is replicated during this phase, the cell is then ready to begin meiosis. Meiosis consists of two stages: • Meiosis I and Meiosis II
• Nucleus disappears • Spindle fibers forms • Homologous chromosomes align with one another to form a homologous pair (Tetrads) • Crossing over Occurs spindle fiber centrioles TETRAD 13
Tetrads line up on the equator. OR Homologs line up at equator or metaphase plate 14
Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres 15
Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, creating two new nuclei. Cytoplasm begins to pinch in. Cytokinesis occurs and two haploid daughter cells are formed. 16
Meiosis II Sister Chromatids Separate 18
No Interphase II or very short No DNA Replication Remember: Meiosis II is similar to mitosis 19
Same as Prophase in mitosis Nucleus disappears Chromosomes condense Spindle fibers form 20
Sister chromatids line up on the equator. Same as Metaphase in mitosis 21
SISTER CHROMATIDS separate 22
Nuclear membrane reforms, spindle fibers disappear CYTOKINESIS occurs. FOUR HAPLOID daughter cells are produced. Cells are called GAMETES (eggs and sperm) haploid Sperm cell fertilizes haploid egg to form diploid zygote 23
Meiosis Provides Genetic Variation Crossing Over meiosis allows for the shuffling of chromosomes.
Crossing Over - the exchange of genetic material between homologous pairs of chromosomes Remember that genetic variation is important to species survival, especially in a changing environment
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis 1. Number of daughter cells produced? Mitosis = 2 Meiosis = 4 2. How many chromosomes in each daughter cell? Mitosis = 46 (diploid) Meiosis = 23 (haploid) 1. How do the daughter cells compare to the parent cell? Mitosis = genetically identical Meiosis = NOT gen. identical 1. How many times does the cell divide? Mitosis = once Meiosis = twice