MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Simply Put Words Prefixes Break words
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Simply Put: Words Prefixes
Break words down into parts… �Prefix �Root Word �Combining vowel �Combining form �Suffix
Medical terms �Many if not most of these terms usually have Latin or Greek origins. �The Latin form is used to describe or modify something, as in an adjective �Ren/o means kidney and is used in the terms renal disease and renal tubule. �The Greek form is used to describe a pathological finding. �Nephr/o means kidney and is used in the terms nephritis and nephropathy.
Prefixes – at the beginning of a word �DIRECTIONAL PREFIXES �CONTRASTING PREFIXES
Directional Prefixes �Epi�Extra- upper, above outside �Hyper- above, increase more than normal �Hypo- below, under, decreased �Infra- below, beneath
�Inter�Intra�Meta�Per�Sub- decreased between within beyond through below, under,
�Super- above, increased, more than normal �Supra- above, increased more than normal across �Trans�Ultra- above, increased, more than normal
Directional ULTRA- SUPRASUPER- HYPER- R PE EPI- INTER- INTRA- TRANS- INFRA- SUBHYPO- A T E M EXTRA-
Some examples of words with directional prefixes… �Transcontinental �Extraterristrial �Intercellular �Epicenter �Hypothermia �Hyperactive �Infrastructure �Subzero Trans | continental Extra | terrestrial Inter | cellular Epi | center Hypo | thermia Hyper | active Infra | structure sub | zero
…and so, some medical words with directional prefixes. �Translocate �Hypothyroid �Hyperthyroid �Supranatural �Intranasal �Superimposed �Perennial trans | locate hypo | thyroid hyper | thyroid supra | natural intra | nasal super | imposed per | ennial (through the years-year after year)
FLASHCARDS: Below are two sets of prefixes. Why is each set grouped the way they are? �HYPO�HYPER- �INFRA�SUB�HYPO-
Contrasting Prefixes � Ab� Ad� Dys- away from toward ab|duction ad|duction � Eu- difficult, painful, bad good, easy, normal dys|phagia eu|thyroid � Endo- within or inside endo|parasite � Exo� Ecto- without, out of, outside, away from
�Poly�Oligo�Pre- many, excessive scant, very little poly|uria olig|uria �Post- before around after pre|operative peri|operative post|operative �Anti- against anti|emetic (vomiting) �A- without, no a|traumatic �An- without, no an|uria �Peri-
Extra Prefixes used in medicine �Brady�Tachy- slow fast �Mal- bad �Leuk- white �Bi- twice, two, double �Di-
�http: //www. globalrph. com/medterm 6 b. htm My favorite go to website for medical prefixes, roots, suffixes
Root words �A root is a word part that gives the essential meaning of the word �Root words may need a combing vowel, vowel usually an “o” which usually makes the word easier to pronounce � “i” and “e’ may also be used
�The root word plus the combining vowel makes up the combining form � Often written (and pronounced) �Ren/o �Gastr/o �Cardi/o �Rule 1: � When the suffix or next word part begins with a consonant use a combining vowel � Arthr/o and –scope = Arthroscope
�Rule 2: � Don’t need a combining vowel if the suffix starts with a vowel � Gastr/o and –itis = gastritis �Rule 3: � A combining vowel is used when two or more root words are joined together � Gastr/o and enter/o and –it is = gastroenteritis
�Gastroenterits �Nasolabial �Colorectal �Most medical root words or combining forms usually describe a part of the body
Root words (prefixes? ) �Py/o�Pneum/o�Derm/o�Aden/o�Bucc/o �Cyt/o pus lungs, air skin gland cheek cell
Urinary �Cyst/o�Nephr/o�Ren/o- bladder kidney
Skeletal and Muscle �My/o�Arthr/o�Chondr/o�Axill/o�Oste/o�Cost/o muscle joint cartilage armpit bone ribs
Head , Neck, and Foot �Cephal/o�Encephal/o�Cervic/o �Crani/o�Pod/o- head brain neck skull foot
Cardiovascular �Thorac/o�Cardi/o�Ven/o�Arteri/o �Hem/a- chest heart vein artery blood
Eyes Ears Nose �Opth/o�Ot/o�Rhin/o�Nas/o- eye ear nose
Digestive �Gastr/o�Lapar/o �Enter/o�Col/o�Hep/a�Pancreat/o �Splen/o- stomach abdominal wall intestine (small intestine) colon (large intestine) liver pancreas spleen
Nervous system �Neur/o�Myel/o- nerve spinal cord
Mouth �Or/o �Stomat/o �Gloss/o �Labi/o mouth tongue lips
Fun �Xanth/o �Zo/o �Xanthinuria - ? yellow animal life
Study of… �Anatomy � study of body structure �Physiology � study of body function �Pathology � study of the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions �Etiology � study of disease The suffix -logy means the study of.
Suffixes…tissues �-plasia describes formation, development, and growth of tissue and cell numbers. �-trophy describes formation, development, and increased size of tissue and cells.
Tumors �Neoplasia = any abnormal growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive
Tumor Terms �Tumor: a distinct mass of tissue formed from a neoplasm (-oma means tumor or neoplasm) � benign: not recurring � malignant: tending to spread and become life- threatening
Prefixes…tissues �Prefixes used to describe tissue growth: �a- = without �hypo- = less than normal �hyper- = more than normal �dys- = bad �ana- = without �neo- = new
Formation Terms �Anaplasa: change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other �Aplasa: lack of development of an organ or tissue or cell �Dysplasia: abnormal growth or development of an organ or tissue or cell �Hyperplasia: abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue or cell
Formation Terms �Hypoplasia: incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or tissue or cell �Atrophy: decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell �Dystrophy: defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell �Hypertrophy: increase in size of an organ or tissue or cell
Glands • Aden/o means gland. – Exocrine glands secrete material into ducts. • Exo- means out; crine means to secrete. – Endocrine glands secrete chemicals into the bloodstream for transportation to organs and other structures throughout the body. • Endo- means within; crine means to secrete.
Organs �An organ is a part of the body that performs a special function or functions. �Each organ has its own combining form or forms. � See Table 2– 2. �These combining forms usually have Latin or Greek origins.
Thursday August 29 1. The prefix______means below. The prefix _________means across. a) b) c) d) Supra. Super. Inter. Sub- a) b) c) d) Meta. Infra. Trans Ultra- 2. The prefix ______means beyond. The prefix________means between. a) b) c) d) Hypo. Hyper. Meta. Per- a) b) c) d) Infra. Inter. Epi-
Bell Work Tuesday Sept ember 3 �The prefix _____means many. oligan- polyeu- �The prefix ______means outside, while the prefix ______means inside. pre-, postendo-, exohyper-, hypointer-, intra-
�Which prefix means around? epiperi- suprameta- �Which prefix means very little or scant? antioligo- perian-
�Anuria �Polyuria �Oliguria �What is the prefix in each word above and what does each word mean?
Bell work Wednesday, September 4 True or False? �Cardio- means bladder �Rhin 0 - means muscle �Arthro- means joint �Hepa-means liver �Hema-means kidney �Nephro- means liver �Osteo- means bone
�Hepatic Lipidosis is a fatty ______. �Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the _______. �Nephrotoxixity is a poisonous effect on the _____.