Objectives n Identify basic medical abbreviations selected from a standard list n Define prefixes, suffixes and word roots selected from a list of words n Spell and pronounce medical terms correctly
Common Abbreviations Derived from Latin Terms n n n n ac (ante cibum) means "before meals" bid (bis in die) means "twice a day" gt (gutta) means "drop" hs (hora somni) means "at bedtime" od (oculus dexter) means "right eye" os (oculus sinister) means "left eye" po (per os) means "by mouth" pc (post cibum) means "after meals" prn (pro re nata) means "as needed" q 3 h (quaque 3 hora) means "every 3 hours" qd (quaque die) means "every day" qid (quater in die) means "4 times a day" Sig (signa) means "write" tid (ter in die) means "3 times a day"
Word Parts n Word roots n Suffixes n Prefixes n Combining vowels
Word Root n. A word root is the word part that is the core of the word – Contains the fundamental meaning of the word and explains what part of the body is being talked about n Examples – Neur/o= nerves – Hepat/o= liver – Arthr/o= joint
Word Root n Because the word root contains the fundamental meaning of the word, each medical term contains one or more word roots.
Suffix n Suffix- A word part attached to the end of the word root to modify its meaning; indicates the procedure, disease, or condition Examples -itis= inflammation – algia= pain – ic= pertaining to – ous= pertaining to
Prefix- A word part attached to the beginning of a word root to modify its meaning; usually indicates location, time, or number. Not all words have prefixes. n Examples n – – – Sub= under or below Poly= many Post= after Intra= within Peri= surround or protect Pre= before
Combining Vowel n Combining vowel is a word part, usually an O, and is used: – Between two word roots – It is NOT used when a suffix begins with a vowel -IS used when a suffix begins with a consonant
Combining Form n. A word root with the combing vowel attached, separated by a vertical slash – Arthr/o= joint – Oste/o= bone – ven/o= vein
Defining Medical Terms n Begin by defining the suffix, then move to the beginning of the term to complete the definition (does not apply to all medical terms)
Putting Medical Terms Together n Poly+neur/o+itis = Polyneuritis – Inflammation of many nerves n Arthr/o+itis= Arthritis – Inflammation of the joint n Hepat/o+itis= Hepatitis – Inflammation of the liver n Sub+Hepat/o+ic = Subhepatic – Pertaining to under the liver
Medical Terms n Intra+ven/o+ous =Intravenous – Pertaining to within the vein n Arthr/o+path+y =Arthropathy – Condition of disease of the joint n Oste/o+itis =Osteitis – Inflammation of the bone
Word Roots Indicating Color Cyan/o= blue; n -sis= state of or condition n – cyanosis Erythr/o= red n Cyte=cell n – erythrocytes n Leuk/o= white – Leukocytes Melan/o= black n -oma=tumor, mass or swelling n – Melanoma polio/o=gray matter n myel/o=spinal cord or bone marrow n -itis= inflammation n – Poliomyelitis
Suffixes Related to Procedures n -centesis n -ectomy n -graphy n -gram n -plasty n -scopy – Surgical puncture to remove fluid – Surgical removal – Process of recording a picture or record – Record or picture – Surgical repair – Visual examination
The Double RRs n -rrhage and –rrhagia – Mean bursting forth, an abnormal excessive fluid discharge or bleeding Ex: Hem/o+rrhage= hemorrhage - means the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time