- Slides: 18
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY CHAPTER 5
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon it.
UNLOCKING THE MEANING OF NEW WORDS WHEN READING Use context clues. Use knowledge of word parts. Use the glossary of your textbook. Last resort: Use a dictionary
CONTEXT CLUES To figure out the meaning of a new word – avoid running to the dictionary First, try to figure out the meaning from the context clues – What do the surrounding words – the context – tell you about the unknown word?
IMPORTANT LANGUAGE TERMS A consonant is a speech sound that is not a vowel. It also refers to letters of the alphabet that represent those sounds: Z, B, T, G, and H are all consonants. Consonants are all the non-vowel sounds, or their corresponding letters: A, E, I, O, U and sometimes Y are not consonants.
IMPORTANT LANGUAGE TERMS Adjective - a word or phrase naming an attribute, added to or grammatically related to a noun to modify or describe it. Noun - a word (other than a pronoun) used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things Verb- a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.
WORD PARTS Many medical terms are formed from Greek and Latin words. The Latin and Greek languages use a system of word parts, or word elements, that can be used alone or in combination in order to form words. As the combinations of the word parts change, so does the meaning of the words Medical words are divided into parts: Word Root Prefix Suffix Combining form
WORD PARTS Many medical terms are made up of these word parts – so by knowing the meaning of the word part will enhance your understanding of a medical term.
WORD ROOT Basic meaning of the medical term. Normally If indicates a body part. a medical term contains more than one word root it’s a compound word. All medical terms MUST have one or more word roots. ROOT: Neur --- Meaning: nerve ROOT: Cost --- Meaning: Rib ROOT: Derm – Meaning: Skin ROOT: Ven -- Vein Ex. Perineuritis means “inflammation around the nerve”
COMBINING FORM A word root plus a vowel that is used to help pronounce certain medical terms. Used between word roots in a compound word or when a suffix (word ending) starts with a consonant. The most common vowel added to a word root is the letter O. Combining Form: neur/o – Meaning: nerve Combining Form: cost/o – Meaning: rib Ex. Neurobiology means study of the life of nerves. Roots are often joined to other elements of a medical term by placing a combining vowel on the end of the root. A root + a combining vowel = a combining form. Example: pneum + o pneum/o
COMBINING FORM EXAMPLES Cardi/ + o = cardi/o gastr/ + o = gastr/o hepat/ + o = hepat/o nephr/ + o = nephr/o oste/ + o = oste/o heart stomach liver kidney bone
SUFFIX Suffix To is the word ending. ALL medical terms have suffixes. change the meaning of a term, frequently we change the suffix. When connected to the word root, the suffix will make the word a noun (N), and adjective (A), or a verb (V). An Ex. of a NOUN suffix is –logist “a specialist in the study of” Ex. -ectomy meaning “excision or surgical removal” Use the combining form of a word root when the suffix begins with a constant. Ex. Neur + o + pathy (suffix=neur) When the suffix begins with a vowel, do NOT use the combining form of the word root. Ex. Neuritis Neur +it is (the suffix it is begins with a vowel)
PREFIX Used at the beginning of a medical term. NOT all medical terms have prefixes Describes, modifies, or limits the term. Usually indicates a number, time, position, direction, color, or sense of negation Examples: trans intra sub – across, through – in, within – less than, under
PREFIXES EXAMPLES v hyper- therm excessive heat v intra- in muscul muscle -ia condition -ar relating to
BASIC RULES Start with the suffix (the word ending), and define the suffix. Go to the prefix; define the prefix. Then, go to the middle of the word; define the word root, combining form, or both if both exist in the same word. Combine the definitions.
CLASSWORK – CH 5 On page 108 section 5. 1 answer questions 1 -5. On page 111 do section 5. 2 question 1 -2 Break up the word parts (prefix, suffix, word root, combining form) and define each part Then IN YOUR OWN WORDS write the definition of the whole term.