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Medical Terminology Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical Terminology Mrs. Spearman
Objectives: 1. I can identify the roles of the four types of word parts used in forming medical terms. 2. By using your knowledge of word parts, I can analyze unfamiliar medical terms 3. I can define commonly used prefixes, word roots, combining forms, and suffixes.
The Language of Medicine The language of medicine is specialized vocabulary used by health-care professionals.
Writing is Key • Correct spelling is essential because • A misspelled word may have an entirely different meaning. • Correct spelling helps with the pronunciation of the medical term.
Word Parts There are 4 word parts associated with medical term • Word Roots • Combining Forms • Prefixes • Suffixes
Word Roots The word root is the main body of a word. • All words have a word root. • Word roots are the building blocks for most medical terms Examples: Word Root Meaning Use in a Word Gastr Stomach Gastrology Cardi Heart Cardiology or mouth oral
Combining Forms • A word root + (/) combining vowel = combining form The most frequently used vowel is o. Examples: Word Root Combining Vowel Combining Form Meaning Gastr o Gastr/o Stomach Cardi o Cardi/o Heart Or o Or/o Mouth
Write It 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Write either WR (for “word root” or CF (for “combining form”) to identify these word parts. ______ ______ cyan/o erythr/o melan/o leuk neur/o enter
Prefixes Suffixes A A word roots are usually written with a prefix and/or a suffix to form a medical term. When written by itself a prefix is usually followed by a hyphen (-) Examples: ◦ Pre◦ Post- suffix is attached to the end of a word root to create a medical term. A suffix is usually preceded by a hyphen (-) when the suffix is written by itself Examples: ◦ -cyte ◦ -itis ◦ -al
Write It Identify the following word parts as a P (for prefix), S (for suffix), or CF (for combining form) for the following word parts: 1. ____ peri 7. ____ itis 2. ____ tonsill/o 8. ____ pre 3. ____ dermat/o 9. ____ -pathy 4. ____ eu 10. ____ rhin/o 5. ____ -ology 6. ____ hydr/o
Reminder Remember that when combining forms are written alone, they contain a combining vowel, usually an o, as in cardi/o.
Combining Word Parts to Write Terms Rules for creating medical terms using a combining form and suffix: The combining vowel is used before suffixes that begin with a consonant. ▪ Example: gastr/o + -megaly = gastromegaly The combining vowel is used when joining together more than one combining form ▪ Example: gastro/ + enter/o + -megaly = gastroenteromegaly Do not use a combining vowel if the suffix begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, or u) ▪ Example: gastr/o + -itis = gastritis
More Examples Prefix ◦ Poly- + Combining Form + Suffix + arthr/o + -itis = polyarthritis Combining Form + Suffix ◦ Arthr/o + -itis = arthritis Prefix + Suffix ◦ Dys- + -pnea = dyspnea
Building Terms with a Combining Form and Suffixes Combining Form Suffixes Ot/o -itis -logy Term and Meaning Otitis, inflammation of the ear Otology, study of the ear -plasty Otoplasty, plastic surgery of the ear -rrhea Otorrhea, discharge from the ear -tomy Ototomy, incision of the ear
Decipher these medical terms based on their word parts: Word Prefix Combining Suffix form cardiologist cardi/o -ologist gastralgia gastr/o -algia neur/o -algia Meaning
Build It (Remember the rules) Write terms from these word parts 1. dys- + -pnea = _________ 2. enter/o + -ic = _________ 3. eu- + -pepsia = _________ 4. tonsill/o + -itis = _________ 5. dermat/o+ -ologist = __________ 6. pre- + nat/o + -al= _________ 7. leuk/o + -cyte = __________ 8. appendic/o + -itis = _________ 9. Hyper- + -emia = __________ 10. endo- + cardi/o + -al = ________
Determining a Word’s meaning To determine a word’s meaning: ◦ Always start at the suffix, and work toward the beginning. ◦ As you separate the word parts, identify the meaning of each. Identifying the meaning of each part should give you a definition. ◦ Because some word parts have more than one meaning, it is also necessary to determine what body system the term is referring to. (Example: myel/o means spinal cord or bone marrow)
Combining Forms Indicating Color Combining Form Meaning Example Cyan/o Blue Cyanosis (-osis means abnormal condition or disease) blue discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen Erythr/o Red Erythrocyte (-cyte means cell) red blood cell Leuk/o White Leukocyte—white blood cell Melan/o Black Melanosis—abnormal condition of deposits of black pigment in body tissues Poli/o Gray Poliomyelitis—(myel/o means spinal cord, -itis means inflammation) viral infection of the spinal cord
Suffixes Related to Pathology Suffix Meaning Example -ology Study of -algia, dynia pain Gastralgia—pain in the stomach OR Gastrodynia (-algia is commonly used) -itis Inflammation Gastritis—inflammation of the stomach -malacia Abnormal softening Arteriomalacia—softening of an artery (arteri/o means artery) -sclerosis Hardening Arteriosclerosis—hardening of an artery -megaly Enlargement Hepatomegaly—enlargement of the liver (Hepat/o means liver) -necrosis Tissue death Arterionecrosis—tissue death of an artery -stenosis Abnormal narrowing Gastrology—study of the stomach Arteriostenosis—abnormal narrowing of an artery
Suffixes Related to Procedures Suffix Meaning -centesis Surgical procedure to remove fluid -graphy Process of Angiography—process of recording a picture an (x-ray) of a blood vessel (angi/o or record means blood vessel) -gram Picture or record -plasty Surgical repair -scopy Example Abdominocentesis—surgical procedure to remove fluid from the abdomen (abdomin/o means abdomen) Angiogram—picture of a blood vessel Rhinoplasty—surgical repair of the nose (rhin/o means nose) Visual examination Arthroscopy—visual examination of a joint (arthr/o means joint)
The “Double R” Suffixes Suffix Meaning -rrhage, -rrhagia Bleeding -rrhaphy Surgical suture (stitch) -rrhea Flow or discharge -rrhexis Rupture Example Hemorrhage—loss of large amount of blood in short time (hem/o means blood) Myorrhaphy—surgical suturing a muscle (my/o means muscle) Diarrhea—frequent flow of watery stool (dia- means through) Myorrhexis—rupture of a muscle
Prefixes Prefix Meaning Pre- Before Peri- Surrounding Post- After Example Prenatal—time and events before birth Perinatal— time and events surrounding birth Postnal—time and events after birth
Contrasting Prefixes Prefix Meaning Ab- Away from Ex. Abnormal Ad- Toward Ex. Addicition Dys- Bad, difficult, painful Ex. Dysfunctional Eu- Good or normal Ex. Euthyroid Hyper- Excessive or increased Ex. Hypertension Hypo- Deficient or decreased Ex. Hypotension Inter- Between or among Ex. Interstate Intra- Within or outside Ex. Intramuscular injection Sub- Under, less, or below Ex. Subcostal (cost/o means rib) Super-, Supra- Above or Excessive Ex. Supracostal
Commonly Confused Terms Combining Form Meaning Example Arterio/o Artery Endoarterial—pertaining to the lining within an artery Ather/o Fatty substance or plaque Athr/o Joint Atherectomy—surgical removal of a fatty substance Arthralgia—pain in a joint
Commonly Confused Terms Suffix Meaning Example -ectomy Surgical excision or removal Appendectomy—surgical removal of the appendix -ostomy Surgical creation of a artificial opening -otomy Surgical incision or cutting Colostomy—surgical creation of an artificial opening into the colon Lithotomy—surgical incision to remove stones (lith/o means stone)
Commonly Confused Terms Combining Form Meaning Myc/o Fungus Myel/o Bone marrow or spinal cord My/o Muscle Example Mycosis—abnormal condition of fungus Myelopathy—disease in the spinal cord (-pathy means disease) Myopathy—disease in the muscle tissue
Commonly Confused Terms Combining Form Meaning Example Pyel/o Renal pelvis; part of kidney Py/o Pus Pyoderma—pus skin infection Pyr/o Fire or fever Pyromaniac—person that loves fire Pyelitis—inflammation of the renal pelvis
Write It! Directions: Select the correct answer. 1. The medical term gastritis or gastrosis describe inflammation of the stomach. 2. An appendectomy or appendicitis is the surgical removal of the appendix. 3. The abnormal hardening of the walls of an artery is called arteriosclerosis or arterionecrosis. 4. An inflammation of the stomach and small intestine is know as gastritis or gastralgia or gastroenteritis. 5. The term meaning pain in a joint is arthralgia or arthritis or arteritis.
Write It! Word Surgery Divide each term into its word parts. (You may not need all the lines provided. ) 1. Otorhinolaryrngology is the study of the ear nose and throat. _______________ 2. The term mycosis means abnormal condition caused by fungus. ________________ 3. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord. ________________ 4. Neonatology is the study of disorders of the newborn. ________________ 5. The term endarterial means pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery. ________________
Infection Inflammation Invasion Inflammation—the of the body by a disease-producing organism Signs and symptoms of infection include: • malaise (feeling of discomfort), • chills and fever, • redness, • heat, • swelling, or • exudate from a wound. (fluid (pus) that leaks from infected wound). body’s response to injury Signs ◦ ◦ of inflammation: erythema (redness), hyperthermia (heat), edema (swelling), and pain. Look-Alike Sound-Alike Terms