- Slides: 8
Medical Terminology An Introduction
-Medical Terminology was derived primarily from Greek & Latin - Example: EKG- “K” (kardia) = heart –Greek electro/kardio/gram ECG “C” (cardia) = heart – Latin electro/cardio/gram - Impossible to memorize all the medical words individually, so determine meaning of words by breaking it into parts. - These word parts are used over and over in different combinations.
- An interesting medical root is gastr/o (This root means stomach). - gastr/itis = inflamed stomach -Gastr/ologist = stomach doctor - How is it, then, that the calf muscle is called the gastrocnemius muscle? - In ancient times, gastr/o was a Greek word meaning “belly” - Since calf muscle “bellied” out, the root gastr/o was used to describe it.
- Medical words are like individual jigsaw puzzles— - Each piece is a word part that comes together to form a medical term. - Example: prefix Dermat ologist root - Dermatologist = skin doctor suffix
-Medical terms may have 4 word parts: - Root - Prefix - Suffix - Combining form The word root - Gives basic meaning of term - Each medical term contains one or more roots - Unlike English roots, which can stand alone, most medical roots are meant to be used in combinations. - Example: heart - cardi/ - In medical terminology roots usually indicate a body part: - dent/o = teeth pulmon/o = lung
-The prefix is a word part added before a root to modify its meaning many medical terms do not have a prefix - Example: pretest - A prefix usually indicates a: 1 - Number 2 - Time 3 - Position 4 - Sense of negation -Prefix examples: “number” prefixes - uni- (uni/corn) - bi- (bi/lateral) - tri- (tri/athlon) “time” prefixes - pre- (pre/test) - post- (post/test) “position” prefixes - sub- (sub/marine) - trans- (trans/atlantic) “negation” prefixes - a- (a/moral) - an- (an/aerobic)
-The suffix is a word part added to end of root to modify its meaning most medical terms have a suffix - In medical terminology, a suffix often times indicates: - A procedure ( -ectomy = surgical removal of) append/ectomy - A condition ( -osis = abnormal condition of) hali/tosis - A disease ( -itis = inflammation of) tonsill/itis - root / prefix / suffix examples: Root example: write Suffix example: writer Prefix example: rewrite
Combining Vowel - Usually an “o” that is used between word parts - Eases pronunciation Examples: therm/o/meter - Occasionally other vowels are used: “i” or “e” pelv/i or chol/e - A root word plus a vowel is referred to as a “combining form”. - Roots & combining forms are indicated by slash “/ ” between root and vowel (cardi/o). -Three Basic Steps to Defining & Interpreting Medical Words: 1. First, define the suffix 2. Second, define the prefix (if one is used) 3. Last, define the middle part (root) of word Example: sub/gastr/algia Subgastr/ -algia Under stomach pain Prefix root suffix