- Slides: 15
MCLS – Free Chinese Class Advanced Stream 墨尔本中国法学会 － 中 文课（高级课程） Yifan Wang 王一帆 Week 5 第 5周 Seminar 3 第 3课
物权法定原则 （Numerus Clausus ） 《物权法》第五条规定：“物权的种类和内容， 由法律规定。”此称物权法定原则。 Art 5: The varieties and contents of real rights shall be stipulated by law. Individuals cannot freely create new categories of property right themselves: it has to be recognised by 法律 (Law made by Legislature). Cf: common law – property right could be recoginised by courts. If found unfair or unjust, courts cannot create a property right.
物权的种类 所有权 (Ownership) 用益物权 (Usufructuary Right) 土地承包经营权 (Right to the Contracted Management of Land) 建设用地使用权 (Right to Use Land for Construction) 宅基地使用权 (Right to Use House Sites) 地役权 (Easement) 担保物权 (Security Right) 抵押权 (Mortgage) 质押权 (Pledge) 留置权 (Lien)
物权法的基本原则 (Basic Principles) 物权法定原则 一物一权原则 No beneficial rights or equitable rights. Trust relationship is not a proprietary right. Hard to play against third party. No life estate. – no separation of current interests and future interests 物权公示原则 原则（Principles）往往列与成文法的第一章。
不动产和动产 (Real Estate and Chattel) 第二十三条 动产物权的设立和转让，自交付时发生 效力，但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 23 The creation or transfer of the property right of the movables shall become valid as of the time of their delivery, unless otherwise provided for by law. 第二十四条 船舶、航空器和机动车等物权的设立、 变更、转让和消灭，未经登记，不得对抗善意第三人。 Article 24 Before registration, the creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the vessels, aircraft, motor vehicles, etc. shall not be used against a bona fide third party.
物权公示原则 第六条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭， 应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让， 应当依照法律规定交付。 Article 6 The creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the immovables shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of law. The property right of the movables shall be created or transferred upon delivery in accordance with the provisions of law.
物权公示原则 第九条 不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭， 经依法登记，发生效力；未经登记，不发生效力， 但法律另有规定的除外。 Article 9 The creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right shall become valid upon registration according to law; otherwise it shall not become valid, unless otherwise provided for by law.
合同效力 (Validity of the Contract) 第十五条 当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和 消灭不动产物权的合同，除法律另有规定或者合同另 有约定外，自合同成立时生效；未办理物权登记的， 不影响合同效力。 Article 15 The contract made between the parties concerned on the creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the immovables shall become valid as of the time when the contract is concluded, unless otherwise provided for by law or agreed upon in the contract; and where the property right is not registered, it shall not affect the validity of the contract.
预告登记 (Registration in advance) 第二十条 当事人签订买卖房屋或者其他不动产物权的协议， 为保障将来实现物权，按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登 记。预告登记后，未经预告登记的权利人同意，处分该不动 产的，不发生物权效力。 Article 20 When the party concerned intends to sign an agreement on the purchase or sale of a house or other property right of immovables, he may, in accordance with what is agreed upon, apply to the registration authority in advance for registration, in order to ensure the realization of his property right in future. Where after the registration is made in advance, such immovables are disposed of without the consent of the obligee who is recorded in the registration in advance, the property right of such immovables shall be invalid.
The idea of indefeasibility? What about the title was registered due to a fraud? See 第十九条 Specifically enforceable contract? Remedy – specific performance 遗嘱继承
第十九条 权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记 载的事项错误的，可以申请更正登记。不动产登记簿 记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有 错误的，登记机构应当予以更正。 Article 19 Where the obligee or the interested party believes that there are errors in what is recorded in the register of the immovables, he may apply for correction. Where the obligee recorded in the register of the immovables agrees in written form to make corrections or there is evidence to prove that there are definitely errors in the registration, the registration authority shall make corrections accordingly.
第二十一条 当事人提供虚假材料申请登记，给 他人造成损害的，应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 21 Where the party concerned submits false materials when applying for registration, thus causing damages to another person, he shall be liable for compensation.
善意取得 (Acquirement as a bond fide third party) Article 106 Where a person transfers to a transferee immovables or movables which he has no right to dispose of, the owner shall have the right to recover them; except where otherwise provided for by law, the transferee shall acquire ownership of the said immovables or movables under one of the following circumstances: (1) The transferee is in good faith when the said immovables or movables are transferred to him; (2) The transfer is made at a reasonable price; or (3) The said immovables or movables have duely been registered as is required by law, or have been delivered to the transferee where no registration is required.