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� Paleolithic Societies: Small bands of 20 -50 people. Relationships were based on Kinship (considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections). Same skills sets: Men and Women were treated equally. � During the Paleolithic Period (2. 6 Million Years Ago), humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals. Paleolithic is characterized by the use of stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers.
The Neolithic Revolution: Is characterized by • agriculture: advanced technology resulted in surplus which could support an increasing population • town building: large settlements indicate a sedentary society • flood control & irrigation systems (surplus production) • script to administer surplus and taxes (and to educate the upper levels of society) • production of metal tools and weapons 10, 000 -4000 BCE: bronze (copper + tin+ lead) tools and weapons were produced
� City-States: Defined as a central city and its surrounding villages, which together follow the same law, have one form of government, and share languages, religious beliefs, and ways of life. Historically this included famed cities like Rome, Athens and Carthage, but today only three sovereign city-states exist: Monaco, Singapore and Vatican City, while two others (Hong Kong and Macau) enjoy a high degree of autonomy despite being under the sovereign rule of another country
Fiefdom: A property or right that an overlord gave a vassal (Knight) in exchange for military service. This property, of whatever size, could be inherited by the man's heirs.
� Centralization: control of a country or area comes from one individual. A centralized government tends to be more stable. Law and order come from one place, decisions rest on one person or one group of people. � Decentralized= less stable/Conflict.
Read about Feudalism and Answer the Questions: 1: List three ways that feudalism differs from nationalism: Feudalism=Loyal to Noble Nationalism= Loyal to Country/Nation ____________________ Feudalism=Based on holding of land Nationalism= shared boundaries ________________________________________ Feudalism= People didn’t think of themselves as ethnicities ____________________ Nationalism=People started thinking of themselves as different nationalities.
2: When and why did nationalism become a powerful force in world history? ____________________ The____________________ Nation became a part of who a person was (English, Spanish, French) ________________________________________ 3&4: Does nationalism still influence people today? Can it hurt or help people? Explain your answer. ________________________________________
1: What is the difference between a centralized government and a decentralized government? ______________________ Centralized: Law and order come from the same place + unified ____________________________________________ Decentralized: People and leadership/fragmented/results in conflict ____________________________________________ 2: How did absolute monarchs change life in Europe? Centralized a fragmented system ______________________ Took Power from the Pope Roman Catholic Church and conflict exists ______________________ between church and Monarchs against Monarchs ____________________________________________ Used differences in religion as an excuse to invade ______________________ other nations/gained territory and wealth _____________________
� 1: What happened in England that led to its rise as a nation -state? Feudalism declined, larger areas of land were controlled by Monarchs. Conflicts over religion led to decline of Roman Catholic Church. England played a role in Protestant Reformation and Henry VIII broke away from The church to form his own Church of England. � 2: Why did the Roman Catholic Church lose power with the rise of nation-states? England became a Nation-State, no longer paying homage to the Roman Catholic Church in Italy During the Renaissance, people became aware of interests beyond religion � 3: How did people’s attitudes and values change with the rise of nation-states? People began to Identify with their Country and didn’t see themselves Individually The emergence of Popular Patriotic Nationalism: National Symbols, flags adopted
The quotation above supports the idea oftotalitarian rule absolute monarchy mercantilism nationalism Which quotation best reflects a feeling of nationalism? “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” “A person’s greatest social obligation is loyalty to the family” “For God, King, and Country” “Opposition to evil is as much a duty as is cooperation with good” Nationalism is most likely to develop in an area that has? land suited to agriculture adequate industry to supply consumer demands a moderate climate with rivers for irrigation common customs, language, and history
Nationalism is best defined asthe achievement of world peace and global understanding the desire to take over other societies by force a method of solving basic economic problems of the society the loyalty of a people to their values, traditions, and a geographic region
Hey! What do you know about this thing called “the state” …?
The state? You mean like Alabama, Texas, Ohio, etc. ?
No, no. I mean something bigger than that…
Well, let’s see what this lesson is all about. Maybe it’ll help you out…
THE STATE OF THE STATE OH! Cool…
STATE a body of people, living in a defined space, with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority, and with an organization to do this.
THE STATE You can tell from the definition that there are four key features of a state… What are they?
POPULATION a body of people, Sovereignty with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher Territory living in a defined space, Government and with an organization to do this.
That’s us! POPULATION Definition: People who are the members or citizens of a state Ø The size of the population doesn’t matter Ø Population has a big influence on the type of government chosen by the state: • Is the population rural or urban? • What do people do for jobs? • Do people get along or disagree on basic issues?
TERRITORY Definition: the area in which a state’s rule applies Ø A state must have set boundaries, but they are not always agreed on. Ø Boundaries can change in three ways: • war – people win or lose territory • negotiation – people agree to trade territory • purchase – states can buy territory from other states
Sovereignty WAIT! Where did the word “SOVEREIGNTY” come from?
SOVEREIGNTY Don’t worry Remember theguys! definition of “Sovereignty” is just athe bigpower “state”? It says, “…with word that statewithout to make and means enforcealaws has thetoability towith rule any within having check higher its borderauthority…”? as it chooses…
SOVEREIGNTY That’s SOVEREIGNTY! Oh! Ok, cool…
SOVEREIGNTY Definition: the ability to rule absolutely within a given territory Because of sovereignty… Ø states can set their own foreign policy and agendas. Ø states are all equal in theory, but in reality that isn’t always the case.
That’s us! GOVERNMENT Definition: the organization that makes and enforces the laws Ø Government has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public… Public policy is the laws and rules that affect the public!
Government Definition: the organization that makes and enforces the laws Ø Government has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public… • Keeping Order • Protecting the Country • Providing Services • Making Economic Decisions That’s us!
of s e l o R t n e m n Gover KEEPING ORDER Ø Making and enforcing laws is all a part of keeping order in society Ø Structures like the police force and court system are in place to enforce the laws and settle disputes
of s e l o R t n e m n Gover PROTECTING THE COUNTRY Ø The government is responsible for defending the territory of the state Ø Security organizations like the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense are established to protect citizens
of s e l o R t n e m n Gover a t s o P e c i v r l Se Road Repair PROVIDING SERVICES The government is responsible for providing basic services… Libraries Garbage Schools Bridge Building Collection
of s e l o R t n e m n Gover PROVIDING SERVICES Ø The government is responsible for providing basic services… Ø Programs for people who need help: • help buying food • welfare • medical services Ø Programs to keep people safe: • medicine • food • buildings
of s e l o R t n e m n Gover MAKING ECONOMIC DECISIONS Ø The government makes decisions every day about how it spends money Ø The government also makes decisions about how our economy is going to function Ø Most public policy set by the government has to do with how money is spent!!
So by that definition of state… …the United States is just one big state!
Figure It Out! Is the United States just one big state? Ø Does it have a population? YES NO Ø Does it have a territory? YES NO Ø Does it have sovereignty? YES NO Ø Does it have government? YES NO
Figure It Out! What about “states” like Connecticut or Georgia? Are they states? Ø Do they have a population? YES NO Ø Do they have a territory? YES NO Ø Do they have sovereignty? YES NO Ø Do they have government? YES NO
They can’t make laws that go against the U. S. Constitution… They have a higher authority above them!
Figure It Out! Oops! I forgot. What four things does the government do? ORDER Ø Keeps _____ COUNTRY Ø Protects the _____ SERVICES Ø Provides ______ ECONOMIC Ø Makes______ decisions
Let’s ta ke a m iniquiz, k iddos, and see wh at you learne d!
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN If there are less than 30, 000 people it can’t be considered a state.
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN Monac o has only 27, 000 people ! Size d oesn’t matter !
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN The boundaries of a territory can change.
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN e h t e m a n t u a o h y t n s a y a C w e s e e r i r th a d n u o b ? e g n a h c
War Negotiation Purchase
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN Sovereignty means that you have to check with someone above you.
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN Just th e oppo Sovere site! ignty m eans there i s NO O N E above you!
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN Government only exists to keep order and provide security.
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN r u o f e h t e r a t t a a h h t W s e l s t ro n e m n r e v go ? e v a h
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN The 50 states that make up the USA are not considered independent states internationally.
THUMBS UP or THUMBS DOWN That’s right! T hey don’t h ave fu ll sovere ignty!
Great job, kiddos! Thanks for all your help!
Homeland Australia USA Brazil Inuit Maori Palestinians/Israelis
Ethnic Group Country Homeland People Land Government Sovereignty Complete Independence Kurds, Palestine
300 United Kingdom Wales Japan Igbo, Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba England Northern Ireland Iceland Scotland Nation-States France
WHO RULES? Forms of Government
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT When people decide to form the social contracts that we call governments, they make many different decisions about how their government will look. r o t n e d i s e r P ? g n i K Rule by few or rule by all? Hol d ele ctio Where do the rulers get their ns? power?
DEMOCRACY Any form of government in which political power is exercised by all citizens, either directly or through their elected representatives. There are two kinds of Democracies… Direct! Representative !
DIRECT DEMOCRACY v. All citizens participate in government. v. There are no representatives in government: The citizens vote on everything! v All citizens can create public policy if they want to. v. Example: In ancient Athens, Greece, they held assemblies where citizens voted to pass laws.
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY v Like direct democracy, all citizens participate in government v. People elect representatives who vote on laws for the citizens v. Representatives answer to the people through regular elections v. Representatives are also usually held accountable by a constitution
Fill in the blanks to review DEMOCRACY!
The two forms of democracy direct are _____ and __________. representative
In a democracy, all _____ citizens participate in government.
All citizens vote on everything in a ___________. direct democracy
In a direct democracy, there are no representatives ________ in the government.
In a representative democracy, the representatives answer to the people through regular elections ___________.
Now that we’ve talked about DIRECT DEMOCRACY! And REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY! we can move on to forms of government where only one person is in control…
AUTOCRACY A form of government in which political power is controlled by one individual such as a monarch, dictator, emperor, etc. We’re going to talk about two kinds of autocracy… Monarchs! Dictators!
MONARCHY v Rule by kings, queens, princes, and princesses… sometimes by other names, but always MONARCHS! v. Leaders usually gain their power because their parents were rulers too. v. Some modern monarchies like Spain and Japan have constitutions.
DICTATORSHIP v In a dictatorship, power is not inherited, but is acquired by force (military or political) v. Dictators have absolute control over the lives of their citizens and usually people are not allowed to voice their negative opinions v. North Korea’s leader is considered a dictator
WHAT ELSE? We’ve talked about DEMOCRACIES… Democracy is… rule by the people!
WHAT ELSE? … and AUTOCRACIES… Autocracy is… … rule by one!
WHAT ELSE? … but what other forms of government are there? What if, instead of everyone or just one person, a few people got together to rule a nation? Rule by Few!
OLIGARCHY v “Rule by few” v. Power can be based on several things: üMilitary strength = Military Junta üFamily power = Aristocracy üReligious control = Theocratic Oligarchy v. Oligarchies can often come from or lead to other forms of government (like autocracies)
THEOCRACY v “Theo” means “god” in Greek… so if a government is THEO-cratic that means it is ruled by… That’s right! A god or higher power! v. Leaders (autocratic or oligarchic) are usually religious leaders and society uses religious law to settle its disputes v. Example: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses the holy Islamic book, The Qur’an, as its guide.
ANARCHY v No government at all… ! T I A W d n a s e k a m o h w n e ? Th s w a l s e c r o f en
ANARCHY v No government at all… v. In an anarchy there is no government to make or enforce laws. u o y o d t a h d W l u o w t a h t k n i h t ? e k i l be
Wow! There are so many forms of government! And remember there also combinations… What is government ruled by GOD and a FEW people called?
WHEW! We had better review… Time for some “A or B!”
DEMOCRACY A Rule by everyone B Rule by no one
DIRECT DEMOCRACY A B Citizens All citizens elect people vote on to vote everything
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY A B Representatives are appointed are elected
AUTOCRACY A Rule by one B Rule by few
MONARCHY A Never have B Power is constitutions inherited
DICTATORSHIP A Have total control B Always protect freedom of speech
OLIGARCHY A Come in many forms B Power is always inherited
THEOCRACY A Power taken through force B Power from a higher being
ANARCHY A B Everyone does what follows they want laws