May 2008 doc IEEE 802 15 doc Project

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May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Project: IEEE P 802. 15 Working

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Project: IEEE P 802. 15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [Applications of Hybrid RFID] Date Submitted: [08 May, 2008] Source: [Seok Bong Hyun, Sung Weon Kang] Company [ETRI] Address [161 Gajeong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305 -700, KOREA] Voice: [+82 -42 -860 -1274], FAX: [+82 -42 -860 -6860], E-Mail: [[email protected] re. kr] Re: [IEEE 802. 15 RFID Study Group Call for Contributions, IEEE P 802. 15 -08 -0089 -03 -rfid. doc] Abstract: [This presentation is a response to the 802. 15 RFID Study Group call for contributions] Purpose: [To discuss issues with current RFID and applications of hybrid RFID] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P 802. 15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P 802. 15. Submission 1 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Applications of Hybrid RFID Seok Bong

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Applications of Hybrid RFID Seok Bong Hyun and Sung Weon Kang ETRI May 2008 Submission 2 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Contents • • • Issues in

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Contents • • • Issues in current RFID Issues in the IEEE 802 standards Features of Hybrid RFID/WPAN Hybrid RFID Applications Comparison Summary Submission 3 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in current RFID (1/2) •

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in current RFID (1/2) • Incomplete specification of Semi-Active (Passive) sensor networks – ISO 18000 -6 C for class-3 tags describes battery assisted tags. – Air interface protocol according to EPC/ISO passive mode operation (ASK backscatter reflection) may reduce the communication range. – ISO 18000 -7 (active 433 MHz) does not specify semi-active operation. RFID Interrogator Analog Digital Power ISO/IEC 18000 -6 C + ISO/IEC 24753 Back-scatter Reflection 4 W EIRP (USA) 0. 5 W ERP (EU) Power Selector Non-Volatile Memory Sensor Interface Sensor Battery Power 860~960 MHz Tag Chip Submission 4 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in current RFID (2/2) •

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in current RFID (2/2) • Standardization related to real-time location systems (RTLS) – RFID based on the EPCglobal protocol cannot be used in the RTLS. – There a few proprietary (pre-standard) RTLS tags in the market. • Reliability / Security – Error-rate depends on environments • Communication range – Limited read range (< 10 m) of EPC/ISO RFID • Multi-reader (interrogator) collision – Signal from one reader can interfere with the signal from another. • Integration with a new or existing IEEE 802 standard – ISO RFID standards and IEEE 802. 15. 4/4 a/TG 6 Submission 5 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> RFID Standards ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> RFID Standards ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 RFID for Item Management Air Interface (ISO 18000) • • • ISO/IEC 18000 -1 - Generic parameters - Air interface ISO/IEC 18000 -2 - Parameters for air interface below 135 k. Hz ISO/IEC 18000 -3 - Parameters for air interface at 13. 56 MHz – – • • ISO/IEC 18000 -4 - Parameters for air interface at 2. 45 GHz ISO/IEC 18000 -6 - Parameters for air interface at 860 -960 MHz – – – • includes Mode 1 (15693) and Mode 2 (PJM) draft includes Mode 3 (13, 56 physical - Gen 2 logical) includes Type A and Type B (INCITS 256) includes Type C (EPCglobal Gen 2) draft includes battery-assist (Power. Paper and Intelleflex) ISO/IEC 18000 -7 - Parameters for active air interface at 433. 92 MHz Submission 6 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in the IEEE 802 standards

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Issues in the IEEE 802 standards • Existing IEEE 802 standards do not support battery-less operation – It is necessary to retrieve information even when the battery is fully discharged. • Example : Implantable device, buried sensor, tire pressure monitor (TPMS) Implantable device Interrogator – Specification of passive or semi-active operation • Energy transfer or harvesting mechanism Submission 7 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Features of Hybrid RFID/WPAN • Semi-active

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Features of Hybrid RFID/WPAN • Semi-active operation – Introduce semi-active operation to IEEE 802 PHY/MAC – Sensor devices (“nodes”) receive there operating energy from an RF carrier or energy harvesting module during an interval between active states. Sensing CW (Charging) Link time • Utilization of a wide range of material as a transmission medium – Human body, Metal, liquids, … Submission 8 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Hybrid RFID Applications • EPC/ISO RFID

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Hybrid RFID Applications • EPC/ISO RFID with human body communication – Identification information is transferred via human body channel – “Touch-ID” for secure and handy communication Human body as a transmission medium Hands-free operation ID information in a wearable device Submission 9 RFID reader in a wearable device S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> RFID in the Healthcare Applications •

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> RFID in the Healthcare Applications • Supply chain management • Hospital Asset management • Security and access control management • Consumer (patient) applications – Doctor/Patient Tracking Current RFID standards are not enough to satisfy requirements in some applications. Submission 10 U. S. Institute of Medicine reported that more than 44, 000 people die each year as a result of preventable medical errors. (Ref: L Kohn et. al. , “To Err is Human: Building a safer health system, ” National Academy Press, 2000) RFID is expected to be a solution S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Hybrid RFID in Healthcare • Reduce

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Hybrid RFID in Healthcare • Reduce wrong drug/blood or dosage – Current UHF RFID is not appropriate due to accuracy problem. – 13. 56 MHz RFID has been used. – Hybrid RFID can improve accuracy and convenience. ü Pfizer decided to incorporate RFID tag into the packaging in US. Identification and sensing by touching Submission 11 ü In Korea, 7 special medicine will be traced using RFID. The Infectious medical waste should be tracked using RFID due to environmental Law (from 2008). S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Comparison EPC/ISO RFID WPAN (IEEE 15.

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Comparison EPC/ISO RFID WPAN (IEEE 15. 4/15. 1) Hybrid RFID Very low ( a few u. W) Low ( a few m. W) Very low Air Air/Human body Data Rate 640 kbps typical 250 kbps (15. 4) ~ 10 Mbps ~ Mbps Frequency 125~135 k. Hz, 13. 56 MHz 433. 9 MHz 860~960 MHz, 2450 MHz 868/915 MHz 2400~2484 MHz ~100 MHz (body) 860~960 MHz (air) Accuracy (Error rate) Normal (Error > 0. 1%) Good ( < 0. 1%) Battery None (Passive) Necessary (Active) Necessary Optional Energy transmission or harvesting EM wave (Passive) None (Active) None EM wave, direct current Power consumption Transmission medium Submission 12 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Summary • Current EPC/ISO RFID standards

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Summary • Current EPC/ISO RFID standards are not sufficient for semi-active operation • Hybrid RFID can improve convenience and performance – Data accuracy, reliability and security • Hybrid RFID applications Submission 13 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Thank you Submission 14 S. B.

May 2008 doc. : IEEE 802. 15 -<doc#> Thank you Submission 14 S. B. Hyun and S. W. Kang (ETRI)