- Slides: 37
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume)
MATTER is anything that has mass and takes FACT up. MATTER space Water can be can found be can be naturally on earth as a and a gas. canliquid, be condenses freezes tosolid, to solid liquid melts to gas evaporates to
Properties of Matter Physical Property • Any property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter • Examples color shape taste D=M density V state/phase
Properties of Matter Chemical Property • Any property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance • Examples flammability reactivity with vinegar reactivity with oxygen Iron + Oxygen Iron oxide (rust) 2 Fe + 3 O 2 Fe 2 O 3
5 Physical States of Matter • Bose-Einstein (Newest State) • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma
Kinetic Theory • All particles of matter are in constant motion
Temperature • a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of matter
Bose-Einstein Condensate • Exist at extremely cold temperatures (around absolute zero or -460 o. F) • Particles are super unexcited • Particles lock or “clump” together so firmly that they move as a single unit • Definite shape and volume (? )
Solid • Particles are tightly compact • Particles vibrate without the ability to move freely • Definite shape and volume • Solid Animation
Liquid • Particles are tightly compact, but able to move around close to each other • No definite shape, but definite volume • Liquid Animation
Gas • Particles can easily spread out or move close together • Particle move freely and with a lot of energy • No definite shape or volume • Gas Simulation
Plasma • Exist at extremely high temperatures (several million degrees Celsius) • Particles are broken apart • Particles move freely and with extremely high energy • This form is not too common on earth, however it is the most common form of matter in the universe • No definite shape or volume? • Examples: Florescent and neon lights, lightning, aurora borealis Why do you think this is the most common form/state of matter in the universe?
Pressure • Force distributed over an area • Caused by: Collisions between particles of a gas and the walls of the container – How does the frequency of collisions affect the pressure of the gas?
Factors that affect pressure: 1. Temperature – increase temperature = increase in pressure 2. Volume – reduce volume = increase in pressure 3. Number of particles – increase number of particles = increase in pressure
Atmospheric Pressure • The gas molecules closest to Earth’s surface are packed together very closely. • This means pressure is lower the higher up you go into the atmosphere.
Describe what is happening using what we just learned.
Charles’s Law • A hot-air balloon floats because the air inside is less dense than the air outside. • Volume decreases with decreasing temperature. • The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature.
Boyle’s Law • When you squeeze a fixed quantity of gas into a smaller volume the pressure goes up. • Volume is inversely proportional to pressure
Combined Gas Law • Relates temperature, volume and pressure
Practice Problem 1: • A kit used to fix flat tires consists of an aerosol can containing compressed air and a patch to seal the hole in the tire. Suppose 5 liters of air at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) is compressed into a 0. 5 liter aerosol can. What is the pressure of the compressed air in the can? Assume no change in temperature or mass.
Practice Problem 2: • Gas stored in a tank at 273 K has a pressure of 388 k. Pa. The safe limit for the pressure is 825 k. Pa. At what temperature will the gas reach this pressure?
Changes in States (Physical Changes) Plasma Deposition Vaporization (Evaporation/Boiling) Liquid Melting Solid Gas Condensation Freezing Sublimation Bose-Einstein All changes in state require a change in energy
States of Matter Continuum
Energy and the States of Matter • The physical states of matter result from the amount of energy the particles composing the matter have. Basically, more energy means more movement for the particles and less energy means less movement. • Energy/Temperature and Matter If you were to compare an ice cube and the steam created from boiling water, which would you think has more energy?
States of Matter Simulation 1 Simulation 2 This is what happens when energy is added and taken away
Endothermic Reactions • Absorbs energy from surroundings
Endothermic Reactions • Energy must be absorbed as the products form. • The container in which an endothermic reaction is taking place will feel cold.
Exothermic Reactions • Release energy to its surroundings • Energy must be released as the products form. The container in which an exothermic reaction is taking place will feel hot.
Endothermic or Exothermic?
Endothermic or exothermic?
Heat of Fusion • Heat of Fusion: Amount of energy absorbed • Measured in joules (J) • One gram of ice absorbs 334 joules as it melts
Joules • A joule is the energy used by one watt going for 1 second. The penlight is about 1 watt. So turn it on for one second and you consume one joule of energy. So one joule isn't much, but 90, 000, 000 (90 quadrillion) joules is.
Heat of Vaporization • The amount of energy a substance must absorb to change from a liquid to a gas