Master of Project Management MPM Degree Programme Fundamentals

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Master of Project Management (MPM) Degree Programme Fundamentals of Project Management PART III: THE

Master of Project Management (MPM) Degree Programme Fundamentals of Project Management PART III: THE PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 1

Project Implementation (or Execution) follows up on the phases of project planning and initiation.

Project Implementation (or Execution) follows up on the phases of project planning and initiation. Project Implementation integrates human resources and other project resource inputs (financial, physical, informational etc. ) to carry out the project management plan which is the main deliverable of project planning phase. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 2

Project Implementation In the project implementation phase, usually the bulk of project resources and

Project Implementation In the project implementation phase, usually the bulk of project resources and time are utilized on the activities required in order to produce project deliverables. Project implementation does not always proceed smoothly according to the project management plan! Many issues and complications can arise which need to be effectively addressed in order for the project to be undertaken successfully. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 3

Project Implementation (PMI Standard) Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences,

Project Implementation (PMI Standard) Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 4

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 5

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information

Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 6

Common Issues in Project Implementation § § § Stakeholders Risks Change Management Monitoring, Evaluation,

Common Issues in Project Implementation § § § Stakeholders Risks Change Management Monitoring, Evaluation, Control Costs (actual > budgeted) Time (actual > allocated) Resource Availability Performance Conflicts Quality Issues Ethics External Considerations Projects can be very complex undertakings and their implementation may be influenced to a substantive degree by a number of diverse considerations. Implementing projects has a lot to do with effectively managing complexity. This complexity changes in the course of a project‘s implementation. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 7

Ethics & Project Implementation In its 71 -page study Building Towers, Cheating Workers the

Ethics & Project Implementation In its 71 -page study Building Towers, Cheating Workers the US-based Human Rights Watch has documented numerous cases of maltreatment and abuses of project construction workers in the United Arab Emirates. The issue of maltreatment of project construction workers in the United Arab Emirates has also been independantly investigated and substantiated by other organizations and individuals. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 8

Class Assignment Construct a “fishbone diagramme” to determine the possible causes for ‘issues’ which

Class Assignment Construct a “fishbone diagramme” to determine the possible causes for ‘issues’ which may arise in the course of a project’s implementation. Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 9

Mansgement Styles Subordinate-Centred Leadership Boss-Centred Leadership Use of Authority by the Manager Makes decision

Mansgement Styles Subordinate-Centred Leadership Boss-Centred Leadership Use of Authority by the Manager Makes decision and announces it Area of Freedom for Subordinates Manager Presents Ideas and Invites questions Manager Sells decision Manager presents tentative decision subject to change Manager presents problem, gets suggestions, makes decision Manager permits Subordinates to function within limits defined by superior Manager defines limits, asks group to make decision Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 10

Characteristics of „Good“ Project Managers See Systems Context and strategic context of the project

Characteristics of „Good“ Project Managers See Systems Context and strategic context of the project Have a Vision Promote Empowerment Take Risks and show Courage Interpersonal Skills Tenacity Make work appear enjoyable Ability to Motivate Communication Skills Ability to keep abreast of all project-related developments Mentoring and Guidance ability Knowledge and Competency Ability to inspire Trust and Confidence Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 11

The Many Hats of a Project Manager Strategist Diplomat Visionary Counsellor Recruiter Coach Designer

The Many Hats of a Project Manager Strategist Diplomat Visionary Counsellor Recruiter Coach Designer Expeditor Negotiator Mentor Decision-Maker Integrator Influencor Conflict Manager Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 12

Project Teams and Teamwork Teambuilding – The process of taking a collection of individuals

Project Teams and Teamwork Teambuilding – The process of taking a collection of individuals with different backgrounds, needs, competencies, skills and experience and transforming them into an integrated and effective work unit Today’s project environments are often characterised by enormous complexity, dynamism, multinationalism, technological sophisticatedness, cost-intensiveness and risk and uncertainty. Project teams, in which considerations of flexibility, multidisciplinarity, innovativeness and a high level of individual commitment and motivation are accorded high value, are an appropriate way to deal with such environments Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 13

Charachteristics of High-Performing Teams High Response Rate Membership Self-Development Conflict Management Risk-Sharing Self-Directed Change-Oriented

Charachteristics of High-Performing Teams High Response Rate Membership Self-Development Conflict Management Risk-Sharing Self-Directed Change-Oriented High Morale and Team Spirit Innovative High-Quality On-Budget On-Time Committed Effective Communications Effective Cross-Functional Interfaces & Alliances Enjoy Work High Need for Achievements Innovative Behaviour Miminal Reliance On Procedures Quality-Oriented Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 14

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (A) Work & Team Structure – Team participates

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (A) Work & Team Structure – Team participates in project definition and work plans evolve dynamically – Team structure and responsibilities evolve and change as needed – Broad information sharing – Team leadership evolves on the basis of expertise, trust and respect – Minimal dependence on bureaucracy, procedures and politics Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 15

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (B) Communication & Control – Effective cross-functional channels

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (B) Communication & Control – Effective cross-functional channels and linkages – Ability to seek out and process information – Effective group decision-making and consensus – Clear sense of purpose and direction – Self-Control, accountability and ownership – Control is stimulated by visibility, recognition, accomplishments, autonomy Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 16

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (C) Team Leadership – Minimal hierarchy in member

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (C) Team Leadership – Minimal hierarchy in member status and position – Internal team leadership based on situational expertise, trust and need – Clear management goals, direction and support – Inspires and encourages Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 17

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (D) Attitudes & Values – Members are committed

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance (D) Attitudes & Values – Members are committed to established objectives and plans – Shared goals, values and project ownership – High involvement, energy, work interest, need for achievement and pride, self-motivated – Capacity for conflict resolution and resourcesharing – Team building and self-development – Risk-sharing, mutual trust and support Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 18

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance • • • Innovative behaviour Flexibility and willingness

Factors Which Determine Project Team Performance • • • Innovative behaviour Flexibility and willingness to change High morale and team spirit High commitment to established project goals Continuous improvement of work process, efficiency and quality • Ability to stretch beyond agreed-on principles Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 19

Model for Analyzing Team Performance External Business Environment Internal Organizational Environment Drivers Managerial Leadership

Model for Analyzing Team Performance External Business Environment Internal Organizational Environment Drivers Managerial Leadership Barriers Team Characteristics and Team Performance Internal Organizational Environment Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 20

Project Team Performance – The Drivers • Clear project plans and objectives • Good

Project Team Performance – The Drivers • Clear project plans and objectives • Good interpersonal relations and shared values • Good project leadership and credibility • Professional growth potential • Professionally interesting and stimulating work • Project visibility and high priority • Proper technical direction and team leadership • Qualified, competent team personnel • Recognition of sense of accomplishment • Management involvement and support Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 21

Project Team Performance – The Barriers • Communication problems • Conflict among team members

Project Team Performance – The Barriers • Communication problems • Conflict among team members or between team and support organizations • Different outlooks, objectives and priorities perceived by team members • Poor qualification of team or project leader • Poor trust, respect and credibility of team leader • Insufficient resources • Insufficient rewards • Lack of project challenge and interest • Lack of senior management support, interest and involvement • Lack of team definition, role conflict and confusion • Lack of team member commitment Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 22

Project Team Performance – The Barriers • • Poor project team / personnel selection

Project Team Performance – The Barriers • • Poor project team / personnel selection Shifting goals and priorities Unclear team leadership and power struggle Unstable project environment, poor job security and anxieties Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 23

Effective Team Management – Some Recommendations • • • • Negotiate the work assignment

Effective Team Management – Some Recommendations • • • • Negotiate the work assignment Communicate organizational goals and objectives Plan the project effectively Staff and organize the project team Define the project organization, interfaces and reporting relations Build a high-performance image Define work process and team structure Build enthusiasm and excitement Ensure senior management support Define effective communication channels and methods Build commitment Conduct team-building sessions Ensure project leadership Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 24

Effective Team Management – Some Recommendations • Create proper rewards systems • Manage conflict

Effective Team Management – Some Recommendations • Create proper rewards systems • Manage conflict and problems • Ensure personal drive and involvement Assistant Professor Dr. Aurangzeb Zulfiqar Khan Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 25