- Slides: 28
Marriage, Work & Economics Michael Itagaki Sociology 275, Marriage and Family
Chapter Outline n n Workplace/family Linkages The Familial Division of Labor: Women in the Labor Force Dual-earner Marriages Atypical Dual-earners: Shift Couples and Peer Marriages
Chapter Outline n n n Employment and the Family Life Cycle Family Issues in the Workplace Living Without Work: Unemployment and Families Poverty Workplace and Family Policy
Families and Work n n Families—Economic units bound by emotional ties. Two types of work in families: u Paid work at the workplace u Unpaid work in the household
Workplace/Family Linkages n Work spillover—Effect employment has on other aspects of life, i. e. the family For men: Excessive work time is cause of conflict u For women: Fatigue and irritability cause conflict u
Workplace/Family Linkages n n n Role Conflict—Juggling between responsibilities of separate roles. Role Strain—Juggling multiple responsibilities attached to a role. Role Overload—Responsibilities for one or more roles are greater than an individual can handle.
Familial Division of Labor n Traditional u Husband works outside home for wages « Traditional u Wife n primary role as the provider remains home caring for children. Two-person career model u Women are domestic and child-rearing supports u Men focus on wage earning and providing.
Familial Division of Labor n Men’s family work u Household maintenance and repair…, “helping” their partner in household tasks. n Women’s family work u Homemaker role is unpaid, denigrated. u There is seldom equality when it comes to housework.
Familial Division of Labor n Men’s family work u Household maintenance and repair…, “helping” their partner in household tasks. n Women’s family work u Homemaker role is unpaid, denigrated. u There is seldom equality when it comes to housework. u Impact of employment status
Characteristics Of Housework n n n n It isolates the person at home. It is unstructured, monotonous, and repetitive. It is often a restricted, full-time role. It is autonomous. It is “never done”. It may involve child rearing. It often involves role strain. It is unpaid.
Women in the Labor Force n n Women have always been a part of the labor force: single women In 2002, women represented: u u 46. 3% of labor force 60% of adult women were employed
Women’s Decision to Enter the Labor Force 1. 2. 3. 4. Financial factors: To what extent is income significant? Social norms Self-fulfillment Attitudes about employment and family
Women in the Labor Force n Women’s employment: u u n Decreases economic hardship Increases domestic support Women’s employment patterns u Women interrupt careers more than men
Women in the Labor Force n ABC News, 20/20
Dual-Earner Marriages n n Economic changes led to significant increase in dual-earner marriages. In dual-career families (subcategory), the husband wife have: u u u High achievement orientation Greater emphasis on gender equality Face challenges to achieve professional/family goals
Dual-Earner Marriages n n Marital satisfaction is tied to fair division of household labor Housework and childcare inseparable. u u u Standards of housework have changed (p. 392) Men “pitch in, ” but still disparity in housework duties Women experience more stress, access to less leisure time than men. Men perceive doing more housework than actually do. If children present, men work more at jobs…less housework
Child-Rearing Activities n Men increasingly believe that they should be more involved as fathers than men have been in the past.
Child-Rearing Activities n n Mothers spend 3 to 5 hours of active involvement for every hour fathers spend. Mothers’ involvement is oriented toward practical daily activities: u n Feeding, bathing, and dressing. Fathers’ time is generally spent in play.
Findings From a Study of Two Parent Families n n n Mothers are almost entirely responsible for child care Women are primary caretakers Men are secondary caretakers.
Marital Power n n Increases with wife’s employment status Wife’s reluctance to insist on husband’s contribution to housework (Pleck) Cultural norms u Fears demands will lead to conflict u Belief that husbands are not competent u
Atypical Dual Earner Households 1. 2. Shift Couples - Where spouses work opposite shifts and alternate domestic and caregiver responsibilities. Role Reversal - Households in which men stay home with children while women support the family financially.
Dual-Earner Marriages n Class discussion: u u u How many of you grew up in a dual earner family? Single-earner family? What did you like/dislike about growing up in these situations? Future plans…what are benefits problems of each arrangement?
Economic Distress n Aspects of a family’s economic life that may cause stress: u n n Unemployment, poverty, and economic strain. Unemployment causes family roles to change. Unemployment most often affects femaleheaded single-parent families, African. American and Latino families, and young families.
Poverty n n Almost 14% of the population of the United States lives in poverty. Poverty generally occurs due to: Divorce u Birth of a child to an unmarried mother u Unemployment u Illness, disability, or death of the head of the household u
Poverty n Poverty is associated with: u Marital and family stress u Increased divorce rates u Homelessness u Poor health, depression u Lowered life expectancy
Poverty n n n Poverty is a major contributing factor to family dissolution. Majority of the poor, and of welfare recipients, are white. Spells of poverty tend to be temporary rather than permanent.
Poverty n n Largest increase has been number of working poor. Feminization of poverty