- Slides: 84
MARINE TRANSPORTATION HISTORY TRANSPORATION SYSTEMS
ALL NOTES ARE IN BLUE
Primitive Crafts ? ? -7000 BC KAYAK: First used by Inuit natives (ESKIMOS) in the far north, kayak frames were originally constructed of strips of driftwood and whalebones, with animal skin stretched over for a hull.
CANOE: Birch-bark canoes are most commonly associated with Native Americans. Ideal for travel on the network of lakes and rivers that stretch across the northern part of the North American continent.
CORACLE: are oval-shaped basket boats that are very wide, but extremely shallow. Corracles were mostly used by the Europeans. Corracles can be made of leather, fastened to a frame of wood strips.
In AFRICA, people used RAFTS. The rafts were designed using wood logs that were tied together.
CULTURES USING OARS AND SAILS in their design
EGYPTIANS: Slave boat
GREEKS: Design for War
VIKINGS: Exploration ships
ROMAN: Used in Wars
Boat design to capture THE WIND
Tall Ships with sails… ENGLAND: • DRAKE: 1570 s- Merchant Sailed to different islands and countries looking for spices and other items to trade. • COOK: 1750 s - Explorer Explored and mapped ocean and land masses • ADMIRAL NELSON: H. M. S. VICTORY; Battle of Trafalgar
The French and Spanish combine to make a huge Navy.
Admiral Nelson revolutionized Navy battle tactics, but died in the battle… RED: ADMIRAL NELSON WHITE: FRENCH/ SPANISH
HMS Victory today: helped the British win the Navy battle.
SPAIN: COLUMBUS- 1492 NINA, PINTA, SANTA MARIA
Using Sails DUTCH: Mayflower - Pilgrims 1620 Plymouth Rock Thanksgiving Day
STEAM POWER EVOLUTION
PADDLE BOATS USING SAILS and STEAM • Robert Fulton – first designs for the first Steam Ship. PADDLES didn’t work too good, so converting to propellers yielded better performance
Evidence of Steam during the Civil War • MONITOR vs. MERRIMAC 1861 The first engagement of IRON CLAD ships in the Civil War The battle ended in a draw. Both ships survived. The MONITOR sank 3 years later. There was an expedition down to the MONITOR in 1999.
Clipper Ships Were designed to go very fast through water. They were used to transport cargo/ tea/ mail to different places as fast as possible. They got their name from the term “Clipping” through the water. Moving at a “CLIP” THE CUTTY SARK was the fastest sailing ship during her time, won a trophy for crossing the Atlantic Ocean
The Cutty Sark was faster than any steamship of her time.
The Cutty Sark today.
CAUSES AND EFFECTS… • How MARINE TRANSPORATION has changed due to “ship events” through history.
The transatlantic shipping companies introduced it, because having the fastest ship in the fleet meant gigantic publicity for that ship and the shipping company. Lots of $$$$ To make the honor of holding the Blue Ribband, the honorable ship had the right to fly a long blue pennant in its top mast, and display the trophy onboard.
KEY Steamships 1890 -1950 s Kaiser Wilhelm Der Grosse: Started the speed craze! Winning the Blue Ribband away from Great Britain in 1897. LUSITANIA: Built to beat the Kaiser Wilhelm’s speed record. In 1914, it was torpedoed by a U-boat in WWI TITANIC: Hits an iceberg. Sinking causes law changes. Creates the biggest “RECALL” in ocean liners.
KEY Steamships 1890 -1950 s EMPRESS OF IRELAND: 1914, Collided with another ship. Caused new rules for navigation to be thought of. NORMANDIE: Was designed with new technology. All new ship designs were based off of it after its success. ANDREA DORIA: The greatest sea rescue recorded on TV/ Radio during the 1950 s.
In 1897, the German Kaiser's vision was to build the greatest ship afloat, a symbol of a prosperous Germany; Crossed the Atlantic and won the Blue Ribband
In 1903 the Cunard Line began construction on 2 fast, luxurious liners to challenge the German vessels that had held the ‘Blue Ribband’ since 1897. The Lusitania and her sister the Mauretania would be a firm reassertion of British supremacy at sea.
At the time Lusitania and Mauretania were so fast, that they could even out race U-boats and torpedoes! When Germany went to war with Great Britain, they warned all ships traveling from the U. S. to Europe that there was a chance of being torpedoed. The shipping company of the Lusitania disregarded these warnings and proceeded to allow her to go back and forth from Europe to NYC.
Torpedoed and sunk! Some speculate that the explosions after impact were from WWI ammunition and supplies
In 1912, it struck an iceberg on its maiden voyage to New York City. Out of 2200 people, 700 people survive. Such a loss of life RECALLED all ocean liners back to their ports to have better safety measures built into them.
The Empress of Ireland collided with a coal ship and sank in 14 minutes in the St. Lawrence River with a large loss of life on May 29, 1914
New Technology Due to all the older ships having problems with safety and other protocols, France decided to start fresh and new…
Conceived in 1928 as France's answer to a new era of ocean liners, Normandie was the biggest and fastest ship afloat at her time. It boasted aerodynamic styling and state-of-the-art engines, winning the Blue Ribband away from Britain. After waiting out the first two years of WWII at her pier in New York City, this magnificent ship would die at the hands of a careless person. . .
While being converted to a troop ship
Andrea Doria, Italy’s largest and fastest ship collided with the Swedish ship Stockholm in fog near Nantucket in 1956.
Due to the motion of the propellers and momentum itself. The Stockholm penetrated the Andrea Doria several times before stopping.
Boats from all over were on the scene to help out. It was a news spectacular on TV and Radio!! It was the greatest SEA RESCUE of all time! The only people hurt were from the initial collision.
STOCKHOLM with its “reinforced” ice breaker bow busted in… stayed alongside Andrea Doria to pick up survivors.
Naval Power during WWII • U-boats - Nazi German submarines hunted in “wolf packs; ” New threats in the Atlantic • Destroyers – Their job is to track and destroy submarines • Battleships - Heavily armed ships with up to 18” guns and even cruise missiles.
Naval Power during WWII • Aircraft Carriers - Most powerful ship on the water. They have more firepower than an entire fleet of ships…why? Planes! • Troop Carriers – usually normal merchant ships that have been converted to carry troops to the battlefield as fast as possible! Typically they are former Blue Ribband winners
. . . was one of the most feared battleships to hunt Great Britain’s Navy. During WWII it sank the British flagship in 2 minutes!
HMS HOOD The Flagship… only 3 people survived
Battleship Iowa firing starboard
PEARL HARBOR • December 7, 1941 – A day that will live in infamy • Japan bombs the United States Pacific fleet while at anchor. Many ships damaged, several sunk. Extreme loss of life. Most recognized is the USS ARIZONA
Brought the United States into WW 2, turning the stages of the war against Japan and Germany.
S. S. United States…the ultimate in Technology! Top Secret and all aluminum, fireproof and faster than anything on the water. 44 knots on her trials = 50 mph Never saw any service
Converted to a troop carrier during WWII, Hitler offered $50, 000 and the Iron Cross to the U-boat captain that could sink her. These types of ships transported food, supplies, troops, planes, ammo and even tanks to the battlefield. They were the most hunted ships.
Was secretly brought to the U. S. to avoid being sunk by Germans U-boats. Biggest Ocean Liner of the 1940 s
Trans Atlantic Races… From the 1950 s to the late 1960 s; before the passenger jet plane, the only way to get across the Atlantic was to take a ocean liner. In the end, when ocean liners were becoming extinct, the battle of the “best of the best” was between the S. S. United States and the Queen Mary. These two ships were real rivals! The S. S United States still holds one world record for the Westbound crossing to this day! Now there are planes flying across the Atlantic, so now these two ships have new homes…
COMPARE THEIR STATS HMS QUEEN MARY • Length: 1019 ft • Engine: SS UNITED STATES • Length: 990 • Engine: – 4 Steam Turbine engines • HP: 160, 000 • Top Speed: 36 knots • Cruising speed: 30 knots • HP: 241, 000 • Top Speed: classified • Cruising speed: 44 knots
Today…The Queen sits proud at Long Beach, CA
While the Big U sits rusting. . .
DISASTERS at SEA ENVIRONMENTAL EXXON VALDEZ: Ran aground and destroyed animal wildlife and the coast of Alaska.
BOAT PROJECT • Expectations • Rules • Packet
BUOYANCY • Buoyancy- an object displaces as much water as it weighs until it floats. • If an object is heavier than the water it displaces, that object will sink • The shape of the boat makes the difference
BUOYANCY with Weight
BUOYANCY without Weight
Parts of a ship • • • BOW STERN TRANSOM KEEL PORT STARBOARD
• KEEL- support and stability with ballast • DRAFT- distance from water line to bottom of keel • RUDDER- steering and control
PORT AND STARBOARD PORT STARBOARD
Types of Hulls DISPLACEMENT: Slow, sits in the water, very comfortable ride PLANING: Fast, sits on the surface of the water, uncomfortable ride
Classes of Vessels • • • Class A Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 - Less than 16 ft - 16 -26 ft - 26 - 40 ft - 40 - 65 ft and up