March 17 th 1861 Creation of the Italian

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 March, 17 th, 1861: Creation of the Italian state 1922 : Mussolini seizes

March, 17 th, 1861: Creation of the Italian state 1922 : Mussolini seizes the power. Beginning of fascism, centralisation. 1947 : Birth of the Republic. New constitution. 3 elements : - A bicephal executive ; - Bicameralism with equal power between the 2 chambers ; - Constitutional Court. Beginning of the decentralisation, 40 years to become real. 20 regions (5 with a special statute), nearly 110 provinces, nearly 8 101 communes 1990 (Law n° 142/ 1990) : Reform, transition from a system to another one.

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools B. The Tuscan case: the

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools B. The Tuscan case: the adoption of a participative democracy act

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools National referendums The popular veto

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools National referendums The popular veto Article 75 Submission of a petition Participation in 50 % A popular legislative initiative Article 71

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Local referendums Law of 1990

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Local referendums Law of 1990 Popular initiative Associations Value = mere opinion Local interest

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools The electronic administration Emergent notion

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools The electronic administration Emergent notion in 1980 E-poll True-vote Administrative transparence Right of access

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Radios and local televisions Radios

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Radios and local televisions Radios 1970 Encouraged by the Constitutional court Televisions 1970 Rapid increase

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools NAIV 90% of the population

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools NAIV 90% of the population Representation Role of the members Coordination UIP 1908 Promote the authorities’action Representation of the members’ interest

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools NUVMC 361 communities of mountain

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools NUVMC 361 communities of mountain 4201 municipalities Socio-econonomic development, civil development … IACHCER Development of Members States 46 regional administrations 33 European countries Exchange and twinning Identity Federalism

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Civic commissionner Defence of the

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools Civic commissionner Defence of the interests of the citizen Vote conditions Community legislation Local council Lists

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools The right to take an

II. The development of Local democracy A. Different tools The right to take an action For everybody Extraordinary action Safeguard of the public order

II. The development of Local democracy B. The Tuscan Case Adoption of a law

II. The development of Local democracy B. The Tuscan Case Adoption of a law on participative democracy « The ways of participation » Response to the legitimacy crisis Participative Development A lot of tools 3 pillars : Public regional debates Methodological support & financial support Strengthening of the times of participation

 Historical explication The local governments Democratic progress Finances Federalism Participative Democracy Instability

Historical explication The local governments Democratic progress Finances Federalism Participative Democracy Instability