Mapping the technology landscape Linking pedagogy to the

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Mapping the technology landscape: Linking pedagogy to the affordances of different technologies Marija Cubric

Mapping the technology landscape: Linking pedagogy to the affordances of different technologies Marija Cubric and Mark Russell Learning and Teaching Institute University of Hertfordshire

Chickering, A. W. , and Gamson, Z. F. (1987) “Seven Principles for Good Practice

Chickering, A. W. , and Gamson, Z. F. (1987) “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Under- graduate Education. ” AAHE Bulletin, 1987, 39(7), 2– 7 • Identify practices, policies and institutional conditions that will result in powerful undergraduate education • Develop self-assessment principles that are understandable, generalizable, and practical • Emphasise how rather than the what of effective education • Help sustain the debate and action to stimulate reforms in undergraduate education

Why Chickering and Gamson? ‘Face-validity’ , accessible, understandable language, wide applicability, practicality Based on

Why Chickering and Gamson? ‘Face-validity’ , accessible, understandable language, wide applicability, practicality Based on 50+ year of research in the way “teachers teach and learners’ learn” Importance varies “across disciplines, teaching methods, learning styles, and institutions” (Sorcinelli, 1991) Supported by research findings (Sorcinelli, 1991) e. g. student-faculty contact, prompt feedback, active learning Some principles are overlapping (e. g. active & cooperative learning) , some lack in clarity (e. g. time on task) , some intertwined with all other principles (e. g. learning styles) (Sorcinelli, 1991) Lack of support for constructivist learning (Dalton & Tharp, 2002) e. g. • Joint Productive Activity (JPA): Teachers and students producing together. • Making Meaning: Connecting School to Students' Lives Popular tool for guiding curriculum design (Chizmar & Walbert, 1999); and evaluating on-line courses (Graham, et al. , 2001)

Consensus building: planning poker** game 5 min/game X 84 games = 7 h 12

Consensus building: planning poker** game 5 min/game X 84 games = 7 h 12 technologies X 7 principles = 84 games Strengths, weaknesses? ★ L&T scenarios supporting principles? Opportunities? ★ **Cohn, M. (2005) Agile Estimating and planning, Prentice Hall, *agileinaflash. blogspot. com

Results Pedagogy-led L&T Scenarios (recorded at UH LTI Resources website http: //bit. ly/a. BQP

Results Pedagogy-led L&T Scenarios (recorded at UH LTI Resources website http: //bit. ly/a. BQP 7 K)

Good Practice… encourages contact between students and lecturers Wiki L&T scenarios • Tutor posts

Good Practice… encourages contact between students and lecturers Wiki L&T scenarios • Tutor posts information about himself on the group wiki (“social presence” Garrison et al (2000) • Tutor participate on wiki discussion page • Tutor provides feedback on group work

Good Practice… develops reciprocity and cooperation among students “a multitude of small observations and

Good Practice… develops reciprocity and cooperation among students “a multitude of small observations and steps shared between all participants” (polymath) collaboration Design project, collaborative tests, problem solving, topic analysis, essay, encyclopedia, book Problem solving, topic analysis, essay, book, encyclopedia, peer review, data evaluation, teaching materials, presentations, guides cooperation FAQ, summary, examples, literature reviews sharing Glossary, bibliography, reflection, discussion

Good practice… communicates high expectations The University of British Columbia's class SPAN 312 ("Murder,

Good practice… communicates high expectations The University of British Columbia's class SPAN 312 ("Murder, Madness, and Mayhem: Latin American Literature in Translation") Literature review, peer review, data contributed to Wikipedia during evaluation, reflection Spring 2008. Our collective goals were to bring a selection of articles analysis and Topic analysis, essay, design project, on Latin American literature to synthesis encyclopedia, book, exam revisions featured article status (or as near as possible). By Examples, simple problem solving, project's end, we had application web based guides contributed three featured articles and FAQ, summary, discussion, eight good articles. comprehension teaching materials, None of these presentations, knowledge articles was a base good article knowledge Glossary, bibliography at the outset; two did not even exist.

Good practice… uses active learning techniques *Cress &Kimmerle, 2008 Reading (internalizing*) Adding (quantitative knowledge

Good practice… uses active learning techniques *Cress &Kimmerle, 2008 Reading (internalizing*) Adding (quantitative knowledge buidling*) Re-structuring Writing(ext ernalizing*) (qualitative knowledge building *)

Good practice… - Gives prompt feedback § Regular tutor’s feedback § Discussion on feedback

Good practice… - Gives prompt feedback § Regular tutor’s feedback § Discussion on feedback § Peer review and feedback - Emphasises time on task § Weekly or bi-weekly tasks - Respects diverse talents and ways of learning § Individual e-portfolios § Group projects

Conclusions No direct casualty between technologies that are introduced and practices that will follow

Conclusions No direct casualty between technologies that are introduced and practices that will follow (Lund & Smørdal, 2006) Instead, “the pedagogy provide the lead” (Kirkwood & Price, 2005). The uses, or scenarios of the technology, are articulated to demonstrate the importance of having a pedagogical purpose in which to deploy the technology Scenarios included in University of Hertfordshire's Curriculum Design Toolkit In-depth conversation about the quality of blended learning and the resulting student experience. Future work Other evaluation frameworks … Laurriard’s (2002) conversational framework; Garrison et al (2000) Community of Inquiry model; Weller’s (2000) technology/pedagogy map; Dalton & Tharp’s (2002) standards for teaching Other technologies… Second Life Twitter Facebook Tagging

References Chickering, A. W. , and Gamson, Z. F. (1987) “Seven Principles for Good

References Chickering, A. W. , and Gamson, Z. F. (1987) “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Under- graduate Education. ” AAHE Bulletin, 1987, 39(7), 3– 7 Cohn, M. (2005) Agile Estimating and planning, Prentice Hall Chizmar J. F and Walbert M. S. (1999) Web-Based Learning Environments Guided by Principles of Good Teaching Practice, The Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 30, No. 3, p 248 -259 Dalton S. S. & Tharp R. G. (2002) STANDARDS FOR PEDAGOGY: RESEARCH, THEORY AND PRACTICE; In Learning for life in the 21 st century: Sociocultural perspectives on the future of education. G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds. ) Oxford: Blackwell, 2002 (pp. 181 -194) Garrison, D. R. , Anderson, T. , & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry In A Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing In Higher Education. The Internet And Higher Education, 2(2 -3), 87 -105 Graham, C. , Cagiltay, K. , Lim, B. , Craner, J. , & Duffy T. M. (2001). Seven principles of effective teaching: a practical lens for evaluating online courses. Technology Source. Kirkwood A. , and Price L. (2005) Learners and learning in the twenty-first century: what do we know about students' attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses? Studies in Higher Education, Volume 30, Issue 3 June 2005 , pages 257 – 274 Laurillard D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework For The Effective Use Of Educational Technology - 2 nd Edition. London; Routledgefalmer Lund A. and Smørdal O. (2006) Is there a space for the teacher in a WIKI? . In Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Wikis (Wiki. Sym '06). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 37 -46. Sorcinelli, M. D. (1991) Research Findings on the Seven Principles. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 47 Weller M. (2002) Delivering Learning On The Net ; Routledge_Farmer

Acknowledgements • Images – leadinganswers. typepad. com – web. sysart. fi – www. ncsu.

Acknowledgements • Images – leadinganswers. typepad. com – web. sysart. fi – www. ncsu. edu – agileinaflash. blogspot. com • Tag cloud creator – www. wordle. net • Planning Poker Game participants – Helen Barefoot, Marija Cubric, Sarah Flynn, Phillip Porter, Amanda Relph, Mark Russell, University of Hertfordshire, UK