Map Link The Middle East in the 6

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Map Link: The Middle East in the 6 th Century: <http: //www. princeton. edu/~humcomp/me

Map Link: The Middle East in the 6 th Century: <http: //www. princeton. edu/~humcomp/me 6 thc. gif>

Byzantine Empire Constantinople founded 330 AD Called selves “Romanoi” Orthodox - vs. Nestorians and

Byzantine Empire Constantinople founded 330 AD Called selves “Romanoi” Orthodox - vs. Nestorians and Monophysites Multilingual - Latin, Greek, Aramaic, Arabic Ghassanids

Religious Divisions in the Byzantine Empire Orthodox - Christ = divine and human nature

Religious Divisions in the Byzantine Empire Orthodox - Christ = divine and human nature in one person Nestorian - Christ = two persons, one human, one divine + + Monophysites - Christ = one human and divine nature in one person = = + + Monophysites included Copts, Syrian Orthodox/ Jacobites and Armenians =

(Persian) Sasanian Empire Wealth derived mainly from agriculture and trade State religion was Zoroastrianism,

(Persian) Sasanian Empire Wealth derived mainly from agriculture and trade State religion was Zoroastrianism, but only faith of elite. Also lots of Nestorian Christians and Jews Major language Persian, but population of empire very diverse 540 -628 Byzantines and Persians fight series of destructive wars. These leave both sides exhausted Lakhmids Ctesiphon

Zoroastrianism Zoroaster (betw. 1000 and 600 BC) Ahura Mazda vs. Ahriman Sasanian version known

Zoroastrianism Zoroaster (betw. 1000 and 600 BC) Ahura Mazda vs. Ahriman Sasanian version known as Mazdaism

Arabian Peninsula Mix of barren desert, mountains and oases Criss-crossed by trade routes Arabs

Arabian Peninsula Mix of barren desert, mountains and oases Criss-crossed by trade routes Arabs mix of settled cultivators, nomadic pastoralists and semi-nomads Tribal society Mostly pagans (incl. “Allah”). Also Christians, Jews

Mecca Pilgrimage centre, site of haram, Ka‘ba and near other shrines Trade centre, on

Mecca Pilgrimage centre, site of haram, Ka‘ba and near other shrines Trade centre, on several trade routes Ruled by the Quraysh, but home to other tribes and very diverse socially and economically. Also home to Christians and Jews jahiliyya = (pre-Islamic) ignorance

Poets Historians Propagandists Wizards Often competed at trade fairs, group pilgrimages and other events

Poets Historians Propagandists Wizards Often competed at trade fairs, group pilgrimages and other events Had trained reciters who worked for them Recited from memory!

Structure of the Qasida (Ode) 1. Atlal (ruins) 2. Nasib (erotic prelude) 3. Tarhallus

Structure of the Qasida (Ode) 1. Atlal (ruins) 2. Nasib (erotic prelude) 3. Tarhallus (disengagement) 4. Rihla/Rahil (journey) 5. Gharad (objective) a) Madih (panegyric) b) Hija’ (satire) c) Ritha’ (elegy) d) Hikma (wisdom) e) Wasf (description) f) Fakhr (boasting)

Imru’ al-Qays ibn Hujr (d. c. 550 AD) Semi-legendary. Son of last king of

Imru’ al-Qays ibn Hujr (d. c. 550 AD) Semi-legendary. Son of last king of Kinda. Expelled from house due to passion for (esp. erotic) poetry Wandered desert with companions until forced to seek revenge for father’s murder. Partially achieved, but abandoned by allies. Sought aid at Byzantine court. Seduced Emperor Justinian’s daughter. Sent poisoned robe by emperor, which killed him. Hence a. k. a. dhu’l-quruh (the man covered with ulcers) Best known for the mu‘allaqa (hung poem)