Managing Global Environmental Challenges The Role of TradeRelated

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Managing Global Environmental Challenges: The Role of Trade-Related Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements WTO

Managing Global Environmental Challenges: The Role of Trade-Related Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements WTO Regional Seminar on Trade and Environment for Asian and Pacific Economies New World Renaissance Hotel, Manila, The Philippines 14 -16 June 2005

Major Global Trends Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly

Major Global Trends Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history Under present consumption patterns, 2 out of every 3 persons on earth will live in waterstress conditions by 2025* * Source: UNEP Global Environmental Outlook Reports 1 -3 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

Major Global Trends Pesticide use globally accounts for 3. 5 -5 million acute poisonings

Major Global Trends Pesticide use globally accounts for 3. 5 -5 million acute poisonings a year* Currently, 24% of the world’s mammals and 12% of birds are threatened* The volume of hazardous and toxic wastes generated from human activities has increased exponentially over the last 20 years* * Source: UNEP Global Environmental Outlook Reports 1 -3

Major Global Trends The net loss of global forest area during the 1990 s

Major Global Trends The net loss of global forest area during the 1990 s was about 94 million hectares (2. 4% of all forests)* Global CO 2 emissions nearly quadrupled between 1950 and 1996 and continue to rise* Depletion of the ozone layer has reached record levels (in September 2000 the Antarctic ozone hole covered more than 28 million km³)* * Source: UNEP Global Environmental Outlook Reports 1 -3

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems Transboundary and global environmental problems and trends (e.

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems Transboundary and global environmental problems and trends (e. g. climate change, ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, transport of hazardous waste) are of international concern l Addressing transboundary and global environmental problems requires international cooperation. Over 200 international environmental agreements have been negotiated, signed and ratified by governments l

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems (2) l. MEAs share certain characteristics l Closely

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems (2) l. MEAs share certain characteristics l Closely tailored to address specific problems l Carefully negotiated and broadly supported l Based on science l Depend on international cooperation Reflect principle of common but differentiated responsibilities l

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems (3) Why MEAs are important for developing countries

MEAs: International Solutions to Global Problems (3) Why MEAs are important for developing countries l Particularly vulnerable to environmental problems l l Demandeurs for many MEAs Many MEAs contain measures supporting implementation by developing countries l

Selected MEAs • Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes

Selected MEAs • Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer • Cartagena Biosafety Protocol • Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Basel Convention Key Objectives: To reduce transboundary movements of hazardous wastes l l To

Basel Convention Key Objectives: To reduce transboundary movements of hazardous wastes l l To minimize the generation of such wastes To ensure the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes are limited to countries with the capacity to manage and dispose of them in an environmentally sound manner l http: //www. basel. int

Principal Measures of the Basel Convention l Establishes a framework for controlling the transfer

Principal Measures of the Basel Convention l Establishes a framework for controlling the transfer of hazardous and other wastes l Party of export required to provide written notification and to party of import l Export or import of hazardous waste to non-Party prohibited unless subject to separate agreement l Measures related to packaging and labeling l Basel Ban Amendment considerations

CITES Key Objective: To ensure that international trade in species of wild animals and

CITES Key Objective: To ensure that international trade in species of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival l http: //www. cites. org

Principal Measures of CITES • CITES regulates international trade in selected species by requiring

Principal Measures of CITES • CITES regulates international trade in selected species by requiring that their import, export, and re-export be authorized through a licensing system • CITES has three appendices, which establish differing levels of permit requirements for the import and export of endangered species and specimens depending on the level of the threat of extinction they face

The Montreal Protocol Key Objective: To end the production and consumption of ozonedepleting substances

The Montreal Protocol Key Objective: To end the production and consumption of ozonedepleting substances l http: //www. unep. org/ozone

Principal Measures of the Montreal Protocol l The Protocol is based on a series

Principal Measures of the Montreal Protocol l The Protocol is based on a series of control measures requiring each Party to reduce its production and consumption of ODS over time. l A number of provisions supplement and strengthen the control system • Limiting trade with non-Parties • Offsetting some of the economic and social costs associated with ratification and compliance (particular consideration for developing countries)

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Key Objective: l. To protect biological diversity from the potential

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Key Objective: l. To protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms http: //www. biodiv. org/biosafety

Principal Measures of the Biosafety Protocol Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA) for party of import

Principal Measures of the Biosafety Protocol Advanced Informed Agreement (AIA) for party of import l Decision based on risk assessment – “scientifically sound manner” l l Lack of certainty allowed – precaution LMOs destined for direct use as food, feed or for processing not subject to AIA l Handling, transport, packaging and documentation requirements l

Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Key Objectives: To protect human health and

Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Key Objectives: To protect human health and the environment against potentially harmful impacts from certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade l To provide countries with adequate information and tools to manage the use and transport of hazardous chemicals l

Principal Measures of PIC l PIC requirements Decision Guidance Document (DGD) – 9 months

Principal Measures of PIC l PIC requirements Decision Guidance Document (DGD) – 9 months to respond l l. Prohibitions must apply equally to domestic production Exchange of scientific, technical, economic and legal information l l Financial and technical assistance

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Key Objectives: To eliminate or restrict the

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Key Objectives: To eliminate or restrict the production and use of intentionally produced POPs l To minimize, and where feasible, eliminate releases of unintentionally produced POPs l To identify and safely collect, transport, and dispose of stockpiles of obsolete POPs l

Principal Measures of POPs • Elimination of production and use of Annex A POPs

Principal Measures of POPs • Elimination of production and use of Annex A POPs and restriction of production and use of Annex B POPs Ban on imports except from another Party destined for environmentally sound disposal or if covered by specific exemptions l l Ban on exports except for disposal Reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional production and stockpiles l l Flexibility through “specific exemptions”

Some Objectives of Trade-Related Measures Control or regulate transboundary movement of environmentally harmful goods

Some Objectives of Trade-Related Measures Control or regulate transboundary movement of environmentally harmful goods and services l Control or regulate transboundary movement of goods sought to be protected l l Ensure exchange of information and consent l Encourage compliance l Promote broad participation

 THANK YOU!

THANK YOU!