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MANAGING CHANGE IDENTIFYING, MANAGING AND IMPLEMENTING CHANGE DR SHARIQ SHEIKH; SHARIQ. SHEIKH@GCU. AC. UK MARISSA MCDONAGH MARISSA. MCDONAGH@GCU. AC. UK
ELEMENTS OF INTERNAL CONTEXT OF MANAGEMENT
ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT • Organisational Change is an attempt to change one or more of the elements in the figure • Organisational change is wide ranging. • It can include managing the changes to the culture, business processes and procedures, physical surroundings, job design, staff roles, staff skills, knowledge and policies. • Slow expected or planned changed is incremental change. • Fundamental and radical change is termed as transformational change.
DRIVERS FOR CHANGE • Impact of strong external and internal forces, e. g. financial cuts, legislative changes. • New management strategies. • New Chief Executive wishing to impose their own personality, values and beliefs within the organisation.
VARIETIES OF CHANGE (GRUNDY) § Smooth incremental – evolves slowly, in a systematic and predictable way § Bumpy incremental – periods of relative quiet interrupted by sudden bursts in the rate of change (e. g. re-organisations) § Discontinuous – ‘divergent breakpoint’, changes involving crisis, breakthrough, response to high turbulence
MAJOR TYPES OF CHANGE (GRUNDY) Discontinuous Rate of change Bumpy incremental Smooth incremental Source: Grundy, T. (1993) Implementing Strategic Change, Kogan Page, p. 25 Time
VARIETIES OF CHANGE (TUSHMAN ET AL) Ø Converging (fine-tuning) - trying to do better what is already being done well. Ø Converging (incremental adaptation) - small changes in response to small shifts in the environment. Ø Discontinuous or frame-breaking – major, rapid (spread over 18 -24 months) and revolutionary changes in strategy, structure, people & processes in order to meet radically new or different circumstances. Also termed ‘upheaval. ’ Ø Most organisations follow a pattern of convergence/upheaval cycles. This pattern can apply at all levels (department, unit, corporation).
SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE • Ignorance: limited understanding of the organisation situation or problem. • Mistrust: there is suspicion around the motives for change • Disbelief: no strong support that the new changes will work • Power-Cut : individuals fear the loss of their existing powerbase and sphere of influence.
CONTINUED… • Loss: individual has a lot to lose personally • Inadequacy: the benefits arising from the change are seen a minimal • Anxiety: fear of the new situation • Comparison: the strategy selected compares unfavourably with the alternative • Demolition: disintegration of previous strong social networks
HOW TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE • Consider Different People • Work With Values and Beliefs • Understand Relate to Needs and Problems • Tailor Your Message to Your Audience.
CONTINUED… • Identify the “adopters” - the staff who will be impacted most by the change. • Identify key professional and organisational groups • Identify crucial opinion-leaders in the organisation. • Create Change Champions to positively influence others.
WORK WITH VALUES AND BELIEFS • Assess what’s important to people with regard to the change at personal, professional and organisational levels • Understand relate to what people consider importan
UNDERSTAND RELATE TO NEEDS AND PROBLEMS • For all key players, assess “What’s in it for Me? ” • Encourage collaboration about the detail of the approach proposed • Take a multi-dimensional view towards people’s problems and needs
TAILORING THE MESSAGE • Explore what’s important to individuals and groups • Keep the message clear and concise • Highlight the many benefits arising from the change • Use both informal & formal communication.
SUMMARY • • • Elements of the Internal Context of Management What is Organisational Change Management Drivers for Change Types of Change Resistance to Change