- Slides: 33
Management of Conflicts, stresses and organization al changes
Why Conflict Arises Type “A” Personality Vs. Type “B Personality
Type ”A” Personality z. Highly Competitive z. Strong Personality z. Restless when inactive z. Seeks Promotion Punctual z. Thrives on deadlines z. Maybe jobs at once
Type “B” Personality z Works methodically z Rarely competitive z Enjoys leisure time z Does not anger easily z Does job well but doesn’t need recognition z Easy-going
Aggressive People z. Body language y. Stiff and straight y Points, bangs tables to emphasize points y. Folds arms across body z. Verbal language y“I want you to…” y“You must…” y“Do what I tell you!” y “You’re stupid!” Aggressive people are basically insecure…. . Try to avoid them.
Submissive people z. Body Language y. Avoids eye contact y. Stooped posture y. Speaks quietly y. Fidgets z. Verbal Language y“I’m sorry” y “It’s all my fault” y“Oh dear” Submissive people have a great sense of inferiority
Assertive People z. Body language y. Stands straight y. Appears composed y. Smiles y. Maintains eye contact z. Verbal language y“Let’s” y “How shall we do this? ” y “I think… What do you think? ” y “I would like…”
Types of Conflict z. Within an individual z Between two individuals z. Within a team of individuals z. Between two or more teams within an organization
Causes of conflict z Conflict of aims- different goals z Conflict of ideas- different interpretations z Conflict of attitudes - different opinions z Conflict of behavior- different behaviors are unacceptable
Stages of Conflict z. Conflict arises z. Positions are stated and hardened z. Actions, putting into action their chosen plan z Resolution? ? ?
Preventing Conflict z. Assess positive and negative personality traits of people involved z. Determine personality type y. Aggressive y. Submissive y. Assertive z Assess if people are introvert or extroverts. . .
Preventing Conflict z. Review past conflicts z. Assess communication skills of those involved z. Read body language of participants
Preventing Conflict z. Try to reduce conflict y. Realize that communication is colored by personal experience, beliefs, fear, prejudices y. Try to be neutral y Plan the timing and place of the conversation y. Realize that outside stress may add to confrontation y Eliminate/reduce external interruptions
Preventing Conflict z. Manage the language used y. Neutral vs. loaded words y. Reduce technical language y. Allow for cultural differences in language y. Words may have different meanings for different people…ask them to elaborate
Aids to Communication z Listen Actively z Relax z Observe body language z Develop interest in others interests z Ask for clarification z Plan what you are going to say z Tailor words to person z Determine the best timing z Determine the best place z Why is the conversation necessary
Personalities who cause conflict z. Aggressor z. Passive z. Absentee z. Error prone z. Negative attitude z. Chatterbox z. Do nothing
Personalities who cause conflict z. Unreliable z. Time waster z. Resentful person
WAC’em method What’s bothering you? A -What do you want to Ask the person to do? Check in to see if what you’ve asked for can happen
Toward Conflict Management z. Blake and Mouton’s Conflict Grid Source: Reproduced by permission from Robert R. Blake and Jane Syngley Mouton. “The Fifth Achievement. ” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 6(4), 1970. .
Toward Conflict Management z. Blake and Mouton (1970) proposed a grid that shows various conflict approaches. y. The 1, 1 style is the hands-off approach, also called avoidance. y. The 1, 9 position, also called accommodation, is excessively person-oriented.
Toward Conflict Management y. The 5, 5 position represents a willingness to compromise. y. The 9, 1 is the bullheaded approach, also called competing. y. The optimum style for reducing conflict is the 9, 9 approach, also called collaboration.
Toward Conflict Management z. Borisoff and Victor (1998) argue that the best strategy for conflict management (negotiation) depends on the desired outcome.
Toward Conflict Management Unilateral negotiation strategies include: x. The trusting collaboration strategy. x. The open subordination strategy. x. The firm competition strategy. x. The active avoidance strategy.
Toward Conflict Management Interactive negotiation strategies x. Trusting collaboration x. Principled negotiation x. Firm competition x. Soft competition x. Open subordination x. Focused subordination x. Active avoidance x. Passive avoidance x. Responsive avoidance
Toward Conflict Management z. Fisher, Ury, and Patton (1991) outline four principles that compose principled negotiation. y. Separate the people from the problem. y. Focus on interests, not positions. y. Invent options for mutual gain. y. Seek objective criteria.
Toward Conflict Management z. The Continuum of Decision-Making Behavior has been described as including four styles of decision making: x. Tells x. Sells x. Consults x. Joins
Toward Conflict Management z Diane Yale (1988) outlines three metaphorical approaches to conflict: x The competitive, adversarial metaphor • Often results in a winner and loser in the resolution process. x The problem-solving metaphor • If [conflict] is focused on problem-solving, everything that comes at you is seen as a problem or a solution. x The creative orientation metaphor Brings an innovative quality to group conflict resolution.
Toward Conflict Management —Practical Tips Walker and Harris (1995) offer the following practical tips for implementing the 9, 9 style. Encouraging behavior occurs when a team member: 1. Avoids feelings or perceptions that imply the other person is wrong or needs to change. 2. Communicates a desire to work together to explore a problem or seek a solution. 3. Exhibits behavior that is spontaneous and destruction -free.
Toward Conflict Management —Practical Tips 4. Identifies with another team member’s problems, shares feelings, and accepts the team member’s reaction. 5. Treats other team members with respect and trust. 6. Investigates issues rather than taking sides on them. y The same principles can be applied to negotiating with others outside your team, or with a supplier or customer.
Toward Conflict Management z. A Continuum of Decision-Making Behavior Source: From Stewart L. Tubbs. Empowerment (Ann Arbor, Mich. : U-Train, Inc. , 1993), pp 5 -9. Adapted from R. Tannenbaum and H. W. Schmidt. “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern, ” Harvard Business Review March-April, 1958.
Review of the Systems Approach z. Individuals should understand their own personal triggers to better deal with conflict situations in the workplace (Robin, 2004) z. Group members should think about other group members early on to identify privately those individuals and behaviors that may push their buttons.
Review of the Systems Approach z. Conflict may have some desirable consequences. z. Out of control conflict may be destructive. z. Conflict-producing behaviors are more likely from those high in aggression, dominance, and the need for autonomy. z. An important factor related to conflict is the style of leadership and the resulting group norms regarding conflict.
Thank you for attention!