- Slides: 28
MAN VS EARTH YOUTUBE https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Vrzb. RZn 5 Ed 4
Topic 1: Foundations of Environmental Systems and Societies
Environmental Value Systems (EVS) What is an EVS? A worldview that shapes the way people perceive and evaluate environmental issues. Influenced by cultural, economic and soicio-political factors. In this topic, we will look at the environmental philosophies of individuals and communities You should recognize and appreciate that others may have equally valid viewpoints. You will also justify your own personal viewpoint.
Environmental Philosophies 1. Ecocentrism – Nature Centered Puts ecology and nature as central to humanity It is a nature-centered value system that views people as being under nature’s control rather than in control of it Proposes that humans know very little about living things and their complex relationships, therefore can’t possibly manage it It emphasizes a less materialistic approach to life with greater self-sufficiency They foresee a limit to the Earth’s resources Humans are no more important than any other species
Ecocentrism spectrum: A) self-reliant soft ecologists Believe small-scale, local and individual actions can make a difference (ex: recycling) B) Deep Ecologists Value nature over humanity Nature has values and rights that humans should not interfere with Believe human populaitons should decrease so that humans consume less of the Earth’s resources
Environmental Philosophies 2. Anthropocentrism – People Centered A human-centred value system that places humans as the central species and assesses the environment from an exclusively human perspective Humans are responsible for sustainable global systems through control of population and resource use Common viewpoint in MEDCs Anthropocentrism spectrum: A) Soft ecologists B) Environmental managers See the world like a garden Believe that economic growth and resource exploitation can continue if adjustments are made to policies (taxes, laws, compensations)
Environmental Philosophies 3. Technocentrism – technology centred technology-based value system that believes the brain power of humans will enable us to control the environment Technology can fix all problems, even if humans push resources to the limit Technocentrism spectrum: A) Environmental managers B) Cornucopians View the world as a place with infinite resources to benefit humans Growth will provide wealth to improve everyone’s lives
In summary… Ecocentric: Anthropo/Technocentric: The Earth is here for all species We are the Earth’s most important species so we are in charge Resources are limited We should manage growth so that only beneficial forms occur We must work with the Earth, not against it We need the Earth more than it needs us There will always be more resources to exploit. We will control and manage these resources and be successful We can solve any pollution problem that we cause Economic growth is good Whatever we do, we can solve it
Page 14 ‘to do’ assignment Open your workbooks Ecocentric Animal rights Belief in Technology Intervening Capitalism Nurturing Consumerism Preservation Earth-Centered Managerial Ecology Preservation Economy Seeking progress Human-Centered Seeking stability Utilitarian Antropocentric / Technocentric
View the videos A through H. Decide where each of them lie on the environmental philosophies continuum presented in 1. 1. 2. A. Matt Ridley—The Natural Optimist B. Going Green—Militant bicyclists and more C. Rush Limbaugh blasts a Global Warming caller D. Bjorn Lomborg talks about Al Gore overselling Climate Change E. Taking the Heat - A Silver Lining - Geoengineering a Brighter Cloud F. Life in a Russian Eco-village G. 7 Years After An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore May Actually Be Winning H. Satish Kumar explains the meaning of Deep Ecology
Environmental Worldview Influenced by: your background, culture, education, and society in which you live. Your paradigm or worldview affects how you view environmental issues and you have already made various assumptions based on your values and attitudes. Premise: Sea-level rise is a major problem. How would someone in Oklahoma’s view of sea-level rise differ from someone in Virginia that lives on the coast? What could affect each person’s worldview on this issue?
To do Discuss the view that the environment can have its own intrinsic value Resources can be valued in several ways; Economic: Having marketable goods and services (timber, food) Ecological: Providing life support services (gas exchange by forests) Scientific: useful applications (medicines) These are examples of resources being valued ¨instrumentally¨. Resources can also be valued ¨intrinsically¨. This means that a resource is valued for its cultural, esthetic, spiritual or philosophical (moral) value and are valued regardless of their potential use to humans. Do you agree? Disagree? Have you ever had a profound experience with nature? Have you ever been disgusted by human activities on nature? Have you ever wished nature would succeed in a certain instance, even if it meant disrupting humans?
Compare contrasting EVS’s Trump vs Obama Communism and capitalism vs Aboriginal vs Christianity and Islam, and Buddhism (p. 15 course companion) Compare the approach of a technocentrist and an ecocentrist to the problem of carbon dioxide emissions.
To do Write a paragraph on your own personal views on environmental systems. Reflect upon where you stand on the continuum of environmental philosophies with regard to specific issues arising throughout the syllabus population control resource exploitation sustainable development any other ideas you feel important
U. 1. 1 Significant historical influences on the development of the environmental movement have come from literature, the media, major environmental disasters, international agreements and technological developments Significant historical influences on the development of the environmental movement have come from literature, the media, major environmental disasters, international agreements and technological development. We will be discussing the following 4 environmental incidents, and you will independently research and share several more Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring Bhopal Gas Tragedy UN’s Earth Summit Chernobyl Nuclear accident
1. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring In 1962 American biologist Rachel Carson’s influential book Silent Spring was published Carson wrote about the harmful effects of pesticides and made a case against the chemical pollution of natural systems The book led to widespread concerns about the use of pesticides in crop production and the consequent pollution of the natural environment https: //www. youtube. co m/watch? v=Ipbc 6 Iv. MQI Pay special attention to what she says at ~10 min mark
2. Bhopal Gas Tragedy On December 2/3, 1984 the Union Carbide pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal released 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate gas The release was caused by one of the tanks involved with processing the gas overheating and bursting. Some 500 000 people were exposed to the gas It has been estimated that between 8000 and 16 000 people died within the first 72 hours following the exposure, and that up to 25 000 have died since from gas-related disease. Approximately 560 000 people suffered non-fatal injuries.
Studied and reported long term health effects are: Eyes: Chronic conjunctivitis, scars on cornea, corneal opacities, early cataracts Respiratory tracts: Obstructive and/or restrictive disease, pulmonary fibrosis, aggravation of TB and chronic bronchitis Neurological system: Impairment of memory, finer motor skills, numbness etc. Psychological problems: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Children’s health: Peri- and neonatal death rates increased. Failure to grow, intellectual impairment, etc. Reproductive health: can damage growing fetus. May cause infertility in men and women. Toxins can be found in breastmilk.
3. UN’s Earth Summit The publication of Our Common Future and the work of the WCED provided the groundwork for the UN’s Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 The summit’s message was that nothing less than a change in our attitudes and behaviour towards environmental issues would bring about the necessary changes The conference led to the adoption of Agenda 21 which is a blueprint for action to achieve sustainable development worldwide
4. Chernobyl Nuclear Accident On April 26, 1986 a nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl plant in the Ukraine exploded A cloud of highly radioactive dust was sent into the atmosphere and fell over an extensive area. Large areas of the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated. The disaster resulted in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336 000 people. The fallout caused increased incidence of cancers in the most exposed areas The incident raised issues covering the safety of nuclear power stations
Timeline: 1. 1948: IUCN Founded 2. 1952: Great Smog in London kills 4, 000, caused by coal burning during cold winter 3. 1956: Minamata deaths from mercury pollution in food chain 13. 1980: World Conservation Strategy; Friends of the Earth begins confrontational protests 14. 1984: Bhopal Disaster 3, 000 -4, 000 die due to explosion of pesticide factory in India 15. 1986: Chernobyl disaster 4. 1958: Start of UN Law of the Sea 16. 1991: One million tonnes of crude oil dumped into Persian Gulf at end of Gulf War 5. 1961: WWF Founded 17. 1992 Rio Earth Summit 6. 1962: Rachel Carson publishes //Silent Spring// 18. 1997: Kyoto Protocol 7. 1969: Cuyahoga river catches fire due to ignition of oil and chemical pollution 8. 1970 James Lovelock's Gaia Hypothesis 9. 1974: CITES started 10. 1977: Greenpeace " Save the Whale" campaign 11. 1978: Love Canal 12. 1979: World Climate Conference raises awareness of climate change 19. 2005: Hurricane Katrina hits US Gulf Coast 20. 2006: Al Gore's //An Inconvenient Truth// 21. 2007: Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch discovered 22. 2010: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 23. 2011: Japan- Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster 24. 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference
Film – Rise of Ecology
Day 4 & 5