Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC

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Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) * The MHC is a closely linked complex of genes

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) * The MHC is a closely linked complex of genes that govern production of the major histocompatibility * In humans, MHC resides on the short arm of chromosome 6 * Three genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) code for the class I MHC proteins * Several HLA-D loci determine the class II MHC proteins i. e. DP, DQ and DR * HLA genes are very diverse (polymorphic) i. e. there are many alleles of the class I and II genes

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System n n Essential to immune function: HLA molecules

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System n n Essential to immune function: HLA molecules present peptide antigens to the immune system (T-cells) Important for self versus non-self distinction

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) * Between the class I and class II gene loci,

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) * Between the class I and class II gene loci, there is a third locus (Class III) * This locus contains genes encoding tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin and two complement components (C 2 and C 4) * Class III antigens do not participate in MHC restriction or graft rejection

MHC Class I Antigens * Class I MHC antigens are : HLA-A, HLA-B and

MHC Class I Antigens * Class I MHC antigens are : HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C * These antigens are glycoproteins found on surfaces of all nucleated human cells and on platelets * HLA-A contains 24 different antigenic specificities, HLA-B contains 52 and HLA-C contains 11 * Class I MHC antigens are involved of MHC restriction of cell mediated cytotoxicity

HLA Class I Monitors Inside of the Cell Tapasin CR CN Dr. Brian Freed

HLA Class I Monitors Inside of the Cell Tapasin CR CN Dr. Brian Freed

MHC Restriction * Endogenously processed cytosolic peptides in virus infected cells or tumor cells

MHC Restriction * Endogenously processed cytosolic peptides in virus infected cells or tumor cells are transported to the surface of the cells * They bind to MHC I molecules to be recognized by cytotoxic T-cells which then kill these cells * In other words; T-cells are only activated when they recognize both antigen and class I MHC molecules in association

MHC Class II Antigens Class II antigens are: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR antigens These antigens

MHC Class II Antigens Class II antigens are: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR antigens These antigens are glycoproteins found on the surface of macrophages, B-cells, Dentritic cells, langerhans cells of skin and activated T cells HLA-DP contain 6 different antigenic specificities, HLA-DQ contains 9 and HLA-DR contains 20

HLA Class II Monitors Outside of Cell Peptides Extracellular Proteins DM monitors peptide specificity

HLA Class II Monitors Outside of Cell Peptides Extracellular Proteins DM monitors peptide specificity for DR DM Dr. Brian Freed

MHC Class II Antigens * Helper T-cells recognize antigens on antigenpresenting cells only when

MHC Class II Antigens * Helper T-cells recognize antigens on antigenpresenting cells only when the antigens are presented on the surface of cells in association with class II MHC * Class II antigens react with the CD 4 molecule on the helper T-cells which secrete cytokines

Class I MHC and Class II MHC Class II Nomenclature HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C HLA-DP,

Class I MHC and Class II MHC Class II Nomenclature HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR Found on All nucleated somatic cells Macrophages, B-cells, Dendritic cells, langerhans cells of skin and activated T cells Recognized by CD 8 TC cells CD 4 TH cells Functions Presentation of Ag to TC cells leading to elimination of tumor or infected host cell Presentation of Ag to TH cells which secrete cytokines

Class I (1. 1 Mb) Complement & cytokines Class III (0. 7 Mb) Class

Class I (1. 1 Mb) Complement & cytokines Class III (0. 7 Mb) Class II (2. 2 Mb)

Gene low high resolution typing “subtype”=01 Allele: Haplotype: Genotype: HLA-DRB 1*0401 HLA-DQB 1*0302 HLA-DRB

Gene low high resolution typing “subtype”=01 Allele: Haplotype: Genotype: HLA-DRB 1*0401 HLA-DQB 1*0302 HLA-DRB 1*0301 HLA-DQB 1*0201 DRB 1*02 HLA-DRB 1*04 HLA-DQB 1*0302 J. Noble

Antigen–presenting cells (APCs): monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells Teaching slides: www. barbaradaviscenter. com

Antigen–presenting cells (APCs): monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells Teaching slides: www. barbaradaviscenter. com

Humoral Versus Cellular Immune Response

Humoral Versus Cellular Immune Response

Transplantation and Graft Rejection

Transplantation and Graft Rejection

Types of grafts 1) Autografts : The transfer of an individual’s own tissues from

Types of grafts 1) Autografts : The transfer of an individual’s own tissues from place to place e. g. Skin grafts (regularly accepted) 2) Isografts : Transfer of tissues between genetically identical persons e. g. Identical twins ( accepted permanently)

Types of grafts 3) Allografts (homograft): - Transfer of a graft between genetically different

Types of grafts 3) Allografts (homograft): - Transfer of a graft between genetically different members of same species e. g from one human to another - Rejection occur if donor and recipient are not matched 4) Xenograft (heterograft): - Transfer of tissues between different species - Always rejected

Mechanism Of Graft Rejection 1) Both TH and TC are activated - TC cells

Mechanism Of Graft Rejection 1) Both TH and TC are activated - TC cells destroy graft cells by direct contact TH cells secrete cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, NK cells and polymorphs leading to cellular infiltration and destruction of graft (Type IV) - B cells recognize foreign antigens on the graft and produce antibodies which bind to graft cells and. Activate complement causing cell lysis. Enhance phagocytosis, i. e. opsonization (Type II). Lead to ADCC by macrophages, NK, PML - Immune complex deposition on the vessel walls induce platelets aggregation and microthrombi leading to ischemia and necrosis of graft (Type II)

Types Of Graft Rejection !) Hyperacute rejection: - It occurs hours after transplantation -

Types Of Graft Rejection !) Hyperacute rejection: - It occurs hours after transplantation - In individual with preformed antibodies either due to - blood groups incompatibility or previous sensitization by blood transfusion, previous transplantation 2) Acute Rejection: - It occurs 10 to 30 days after transplantation - It is mainly T-cell mediated 3) Chronic or late rejection: - It occurs over a period of months or years - It may be cell mediated, antibody mediated or both

Graft Versus Host (GVH) Reaction * An immunologically competent graft is transplanted into an

Graft Versus Host (GVH) Reaction * An immunologically competent graft is transplanted into an immunologically suppressed recipient (host) * The grafted cells survive and react against the host cells i. e instead of reaction of host against the graft, the reverse occurs * GVH reaction is characterized by fever, pancytopenia, weight loss, rash , diarrhea, hepatsplenomegaly and death