- Slides: 29
Main Objectives 1). What is science? 2). What are the main components of the scientific method? 3). What are different ways of inquiry besides the scientific method and what makes science different from these other ways of inquiry?
What is science?
Derived from the latin verb “to know” 2 types: 1) INDUCTIVE discovery science and induction or 2) DEDUCTIVE hypothetico science and deduction
Science is advanced when new theories tie together a number of observations and experimental results that previously seemed unrelated. e. g. , successional theory
Scientific theories are not the only way of “knowing nature” Science Religion Art Origin of Life
Science can be distinguished from other styles of inquiry by (1) a dependence on observations and measurements that others can verify, and (2) the requirement that ideas (hypotheses and theories) are testable by observations and experiments that others can repeat. (3) objective (? )
What is a gall? A tumorous mass of plant tissue used to isolate an invader.
Swollen stem galls on the branchlets of a canyon live oak ( Quercus chrysolepis) caused by a cynipid gall wasp (Andricus spectabilis? ).
Microhabitat Engineers-Galls provide food & habitat A canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) stem gall in the palm of a hand. A: The larva inside of the gall; B: A minute, adult, cynipid gall wasp (Andricus spectabilis? ).
An "oak apple" gall caused by the California gall wasp (Andricus californicus).
Striking "ping-pong" ball galls of the minute gall wasp Cynips maculipennis on the leaves of Oregon oak (Quercus garryana).
peach leaf curl caused by the parasitic fungus Taphrina deformans
Artichoke gall on oak (Quercus spp. ) from a gall wasp
Fungus stem gall or "poop gall" on choke cherry (Prunus virginiana) in Montana. The swollen stems are caused by the fungus Dibotryon morbosum.
Our Study Observation: Galls are present on rabbitbrush and sagebrush on the FLC campus Question: What is the effect of plant height and diameter on gall abundance for two shrub species?
In all environmental studies, you need to have a logical flow: purpose→ question→ hypotheses→ sampling design→ statistical analysis→ test of hypotheses→ interpretation and presentation of results For this exercise, we will focus on creating hypotheses and the initiation of the sampling design—identifying control variables that need to be considered and controlled for within the sampling design.
“Tentative Answer to Question”: Prediction: HYPOTHESIS (3 Parts): If… Then… Explanation: Because…
“Tentative Answer to Question”: If gall abundance is Prediction: Then… directly related to plant height and diameter,
“Tentative Answer to Question”: If gall abundance is Prediction: Then gall abundance directly related to plant height and diameter will either be more or less abundant on either tall or short plants or small or large plants
“Tentative Answer to Question”: Prediction: If gall abundance is directly related to plant height and diameter Explanation: Because… Your explanation here! Then gall abundance will be… either more or less abundant on either tall or short plants or small or large plants…
Null (HO) Hypothesis: Alternative (HA) Hypothesis:
Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Stratified Systematic
Test (Experiment): We will randomly locate and measure plant height and diameter and the number of galls found on 5 rabbitbrush plants on north and south facing slopes and 5 big sagebrush plants on north and south facing slopes on the FLC campus.
Biases in Experimental Design ? ? ? What variables do you need to control for to assist in limiting the number of biases?
Lab Report 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Title Introduction Methods Results Discussion Literature Cited Acknowledgements