Life: Small Picture to Big Picture Macromolecules
What are Macromolecules? • Cells and their organelles are made up of smaller building blocks called macromolecules. • There are 4 basic types of macromolecules. They are: – Lipids – Proteins – Carbohydrates – Nucleic Acids
Monomers & Polymers • Macromolecules are actually made up of even smaller subunits. Each subunit of a macromolecule is called a monomer. • The macromolecules themselves are called polymers, because they are made up of many of these subunits. Monomer: one basic unit or subunit Polymer: a chain of many basic units
Macromolecules • Large organic molecules. • Also called POLYMERS • Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS • Monomers combine to form polymers through a process called POLYMERIZATION 5
How are Macromolecules Formed? : Dehydration Synthesis • Also called “condensation reaction” • Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing water” HO H H 2 O HO H 6
How are Macromolecules Separated or Digested? Hydrolysis • Separates monomers by “adding water” HO H H 2 O HO H 7
What you need to know: • Names of the 4 macromolecules • Structure- monomers and polymers of each • Function- what are they used for? • Food sources- what foods will you find these in? • Indicator Tests- what tests do we use to find out if a food contains them?
Lipids: Structure • Lipids are made up of… – Monomer (basic unit): fatty acids – Polymer (chain of units): lipids • Specific examples: triglycerides, phospholipids
Lipids: Structure* Properties of Lipids caused by: • Saturated vs. Unsaturated fatty acids • Polar head and nonpolar tail regions – Hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
Lipids: Function • Make up the cell membrane, providing cell structure • Provide insulation (fat keeps body warm) • Long-term energy storage
Lipids: Food Sources • As you might have guessed, fatty foods contain lipids. • Lipids are found in meat and fish, oils, avacados, eggs & nuts.
Lipids: Indicator Test • Paper Bag Test: – Smear substance onto paper bag – If see-thru, it contains lipids
Proteins: Structure • Proteins are made up of… – Monomer (basic unit): amino acids • 20 different kinds!* – Polymer (chain of units): protein • More specifically- polypeptides dipeptide Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Proteins: Structure* 20 Amino Acids: Some of these are polar & hydrophilic, others are nonpolar and hydrophobic. Proteins can contain both kinds.
Proteins: Structure • Proteins have complex structures. The shape of a protein determines its function! • The levels of protein structure are: – Primary structure: polypeptide chain – Secondary structure: polypeptides in coils or sheets – Tertiary structure: coils or sheets form a tangle – Quaternary structure: more than one tangle combine to make a very complex protein!
Proteins: Function • Build and repair muscle and tissues – “No pain, no gain!” • Enzymes- proteins that speed up chemical reactions
Proteins: Food Sources • Proteins are found in meat, fish, legumes, nuts, milk, eggs, grains and soy products. • There are 6 amino acids that our bodies cannot make- we can only get these from food.
Proteins: Indicator Test • Biuret’s Solution: – Turns from blue to purple if protein is present
Carbohydrates: Structure • Carbohydrates are made up of… – Monomer (basic unit): simple sugars (or monosaccharides) • Ex. : glucose – Polymer (chain of units): complex carbohydrates (or polysaccharides) • Ex. : starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen Disaccharide: 2 simple sugars bonded together
Carbohydrates: Function • Provide body with energy! Complex carb (ex. Starch) – What should you eat before playing the big game? Candy bar or pasta? • Candy bar: contains simple sugars, provides a short burst of energy • Pasta: contains starch which takes longer to break down, provides longer-lasting energy – *We can’t digest celluloseit is used as fiber, or roughage instead. Broken down to disaccharides Broken down further • Ex. : corn Simple sugars (ex. Glucose)
Carbohydrates: Food Sources • Simple carbs (simple • Complex carbs (like sugars) are found in starches) are found in most candy and sweet pasta, bread, drinks, fruit, potatoes, legumes & vegetables, and milk. corn. They take longer They are quickly to digest, and provide digested and give a energy longer. short burst of energy.
Carbohydrates: Indicator Tests • Simple Sugars: – Benedict’s solution – Blue solution turns orange/green/brown • Complex Carbs: – Lugol’s solution/Iodine – Turns from orange-red -brown to black-purple
Nucleic Acids: Structure • Nucleic Acids are made up of… – Monomers (basic unit): nucleotides – Polymers (chain of units): DNA or RNA
Nucleic Acids: Function • Stores and carries genetic information
Nucleic Acids: Food Sources • We get nucleic acid components from vitamins and minerals in our diet. These in turn, come from fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, & almost anything else you can think of with some nutritional value (no junk food!).
Nucleic Acids: Indicator Test • You will not be using an indicator test for these but in case you’re wondering… • Dische diphenylamine test – Turns from clear-light blue to dark blue if nucleic acids are present
Digestion & Reconstruction • When macromolecules are eaten, they are digested and broken down into their subunits (monomers). – Analogy: taking apart an old brick building • Inside the cells, these subunits are reconstructed into the macromolecules we need. – Analogy: using bricks to build a new building
Digestion Products Macromolecule eaten: Carbohydrates Broken down in stomach to: Simple sugars (i. e. glucose) Lipids Proteins Fatty acids & glycerol (glycerol further broken down to glucose) Amino acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides
Homework Read Chapter 2. 3 (p. 44 - 48) and create flashcards for the following terms. Some terms may be found in the Elements and Macromolecules Coloring W. S. or this lecture’s Power. Point. 1. Monomer 9. Nucleotide 17. Substrate 2. Polymer 10. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 18. Active Site 3. Carbohydrate 11. Hydrolysis 19. Catalyst 4. Monosaccharide 12. Protein 20. Peptide Bond 5. Disaccharide 13. Amino Acid 21. Enzymes 6. Polysaccharide 14. Macromolecule 22. Saturated Fats 7. Lipid 15. Lugol’s Solution (Iodine) 23. Unsaturated Fats 8. Benedict’s Solution 16. Biuret’s Solution 24. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 25. Polymerization