- Slides: 49
Lynn Erickson Slides • These slides may be used on a limited basis to share information in your school or school district with appropriate credits to H. Lynn Erickson.
Shaping the Conceptual Mind
Let’s think about… * How can we meet the deeper intent of academic Standards by moving from a two dimensional to a three-dimensional design for curriculum and instruction? * How is knowledge structured? How can we use this structure to focus teaching and learning, develop the intellect, and significantly improve the academic performance of all students? * What are some specific strategies for brain-based teaching and why is development of the conceptual mind critical to brain-based teaching and learning?
Social Change Forces impacting education • • Expanding role of technology Changing job demands Increasing global interdependence of people Changing social norms and value structures Worldwide competition and markets Rapid growth of knowledge Ecological concerns
Living, Learning and Working Critical, Creative, and Conceptual Thinking
Traditional Curriculum. . . is Topic Based AMERICAN HISTORY: American Revolution, Westward Movement, the Constitution, our Government, the Civil War, the 60’s, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Colorado leaders, Native Americans… SCIENCE: Plants, snakes, fish, the human body, genes, volcanoes, the Earth, space travel, machines, water, mountains, streams… ENGLISH: Grammar, syntax, essays, Edgar Allan Poe, The Cay, Romeo and Juliet, Poetry, Fiction, Non-fiction, Skills… ART: Van Gogh, Picasso, drawing, crafts, art appreciation…
Two Dimensional Curriculum Model. Topic-based Processes & Skills Factual Content
Three Dimensional Curriculum Model. Concept-based Concepts & Principles ctu Fa s& al e s s ce t ten n Co o Pr S ls l i k
Key Points Two-dimensional vs. Three-dimensional Coverage-centered “inch deep, mile wide” Idea-centered -facts provide a foundation to understand conceptual, transferable ideas. Intellectually shallow - lacks a conceptual focus to create a factual/ conceptual brain synergy Intellectual depth -a “conceptual lens, ” or focus, requires mental processing on the factual and conceptual levels-producing intellectual depth in thinking and understanding. Inability to transfer factual knowledge - facts do not transfer; locked in time, place, or situation. Concepts and Generalizations Transfer -allows the brain to make connections and see patterns. Fails to meet the intellectual demands of the 21 st century Develops the intellect to handle a world of increasing complexity and accelerating change.
Conceptual Level Generalizations “Big Ideas” Factual Level Topics/Facts Curriculum Design
Barry’s clipart. com The Structure of Knowledge
The Structure of Knowledge People migrate to meet a variety of needs. Migration may lead to new opportunities or greater freedom. • Migration • Opportunity • Needs • Freedom Westward Movement Early American settlers migrated west. Early American settlers looked for new opportunities.
High School Generalizations: Social Studies (examples) Government: 1. Forces of imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and geo-political alliances, taken to the extreme, can lead to international conflicts. History: 2. Key events in history can signal turning points that drastically alter the social, economic and political directions of a society. Economics: 3. Economic depression in one country can substantially affect the economies of other nations. Culture: 4. New technologies and scientific breakthroughs can improve the quality of life--but may also present ethical dilemmas.
The Structure of Knowledge An organism’s behavior patterns exhibit an evolutionary logic. Environmental factors influence an organism’s biology and behavior patterns. biology; evolution; mutation; environment; behavior patterns; adaptation; The Amazon Rainforest: Organisms
The Structure of Knowledge Velocity can be mathematically represented by the slope of a line. The slope of a graph at a particular point indicates the instantaneous rate of change. slope derivative line graph Measurement of distance and speed
Concept A concept is an organizing idea; a mental construct. . . • • • Timeless Universal Abstract Represented by 1 or 2 words Examples share common attributes
Examples of Subject Area Concepts -Science Order Organism Population System Change Evolution Cycle Interaction Energy/Matter Equilibrium - Social Studies -Literary Themes Conflict/Cooperation Patterns Populations System Change/Continuity Culture Evolution Civilization Migration/Immigration Interdependence Prejudice Perspective Conflict Cooperation Power Relationships Envy Emotions Oppression Influence -Writers’ Craft Organization Word Choice Context Conventions Fluency Voice Presentation Symbolism Allegory Metaphor Protagonist Antagonist
Examples of Subject Area Concepts – Mathematics Number Ratio Proportion Symmetry Probability Pattern Order Quantification System – Visual Art Rhythm Line Color Value Shape Texture Form Space Angle – Music Rhythm Melody Harmony Tone Pitch Form Tempo Timbre Pattern
The Structure of Knowledge The student understands that. . . _________________. U. S. Trade and Competition 3 2 1
Examples of Subject Area Concepts - Economics – Social Studies Conflict/Cooperation Patterns Populations System Change/Continuity Culture Evolution Civilization Migration/Immigration Interdependence Markets Supply and Demand Cost Interdependence Beliefs/Values Goods/Services Conflict Cooperation Perceptions Patterns Power Systems
The Structure of Knowledge The student understands that. . . ________________. 3 2 Change in Our Community: _______ 1
The Structure of Knowledge The student understands that. . . ________________ 3 ___________. 2 1
Checking Our Generalizations Line 3: No proper or personal nouns Ø No pronouns in sentence (“our, we, they…”) Ø Has a present tense verb Ø Contains at least two concepts Ø Is a transferable idea that is supported by the factual content Ø May need a qualifier (“often, can, may”) if not true in all situations—but is still an important idea Ø
Key Points Structure of Knowledge v Knowledge has an inherent structure from topics and facts, framed by concepts, which combine to form generalizations, principles, and theories. v Traditional, two-dimensional curriculum/instruction models focus more on the topic and fact levels and assume an understanding of related concepts and principles. v Concept-based, three-dimensional curriculum/instruction models raise the intellectual bar by teaching to ideas (generalizations/principles) and by using the topics and facts as foundational support for the deeper understandings. v Topics and facts do not transfer. They are locked in time, place, or situation. v Concepts and Generalizations transfer through time, across cultures, and across situations. v The concepts, generalizations, and principles add the third intellectual dimension to curriculum and instruction. v There is a Theory Level, but we need to focus our work on the Concepts, Generalization Levels at this time. (A Theory is an idea supported by the best evidence available, but not yet fully proven. )
Students will understand the concepts and principles of… • Science • Mathematics • Social Studies • Art. . .
Example: State History Standard Content Standard: Understand the development of culture. Performance Indicator: Grades K-4: Describe life in early America before and after European contact. (Why? )
Example: State History Standard Content Standard: Understand the development of culture. Sample Performance Standard: Grades 5 -8: Identify and explain the impact of major figures in U. S. and world history, related to significant issues, movements and events. (Can you think of a “conceptual lens” to integrate thinking at a higher level? )
To develop the intellect and increase motivation for learning, curriculum and instruction must create a “synergy” between the lower (factual) and higher (conceptual) levels of thinking.
Performance Task Planner [What] Investigate [topic]. . [Why] …in order to understand that [generalization]… [How] Engaging Scenario…[performance]
Performance Task Example - Primary Grades What: Investigate the responsibilities of citizens in a community. . . Why: in order to understand that citizens help build a community. How: Demonstrate understanding by creating a Citizenship Booklet showing acts of positive citizenship. Select one act and describe how it supports the community.
Page 5 Step 1: Task Planner What: Investigate prehistoric cultures Why: …in order to understand that innovations and technology cause cultures to progress. How: (Engaging Scenario-Performance) You are an archaeologist preparing a presentation on the development of prehistoric cultures for an archaeology class. Chart the information you research on a map and create a colorful and appealing graphic organizer to display the development of prehistoric cultures. Present your information to the class stressing the innovations and technologies that caused the prehistoric societies to progress.
Student Performances: v Reflect the most important Understand (Generalizations), Know (Factual Knowledge), and able to Do (Skills) of a unit v Student Performances are the assessment evidence of mastery. v Student Performances are not simple “activities. ”
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): Watershed events mark turning points in history. Standard: “Analyze Lincoln’s ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural address and the Gettysburg Address. ” Student Performance: Recite from memory key passages from the Gettysburg Address. (Activity or performance? )
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): Watershed events mark turning point in history. Standard: “Analyze Lincoln’s ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural address and the Gettysburg Address. ” Student Performance: Recite from memory key passages from the Gettysburg Address. Tell why Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered a “watershed event” in American History or… Explain why Lincoln’s ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government are critical to an understanding of American Democracy today.
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): The availability of human and material resources provide tactical advantages in times of war. Standard: “Analyze the causes and effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events in the United States. ” Student Performance: Create pie graphs which show available resources to the North/South before the Civil War. (Activity or Performance? )
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): The availability of human and material resources provide tactical advantages in times of war. Standard: “Analyze the causes and effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events in the United States. ” Student Performance: Create pie graphs which show available resources to the North/South before the Civil War, and describe how resources can affect the outcome of a war.
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): The values, beliefs, and ideals of a country are reflected in their laws and political documents. Standard: “Identify the reasons for and describe the system of checks and balances outlined in the U. S. Constitution. ” Student Performance: Design a graphic organizer demonstrating the U. S. system of checks and balances. Then have students use the graphic organizer to write a probe that defends why they think the system of checks and balances reflects American values and beliefs. (Activity or Performance? )
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): Political documents can set forth social ideals such as justice, equality, or freedom, but the path to ideals is impeded by conflicting notions. Standard: “Identify the influence of ideas from historic documents including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, and selected anitfederalist writing on the U. S. system of government. ” Student Performance: Create an outline highlighting social ideas such as justice, equality, or freedom for the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, and selected Anti. Federalist writing on the U. S. Constitution. Select one of these social ideas and describe how conflicting notions have impeded the progress to these ideals. [cite specific examples from history or current events to support your position. ] (Activity or Performance? )
Working on Performance Statements Enduring Understanding (Generalization): As a society becomes more complex, the role of government can increase in the daily life of its citizens. Standard: “Explain the impact of significant international events such as WWI and WWII on changes in the role of government. ” “Predict the effects of selected contemporary legislation on the roles of government. ” Student Performance: Create a 3 -column chart. In the first column list significant international events such as WWI, WWII and Global Terrorism. In the second column show some of the resulting U. S. legislation, or governmental policies, enacted in response to these events. In the third column detail the impact of the legislation on the daily life of citizens. In a paragraph below the chart, answer this question: “How does the increasing complexity (social, economic, political) of a society lead to the expansion of government? ”
Science: Working with Student Performances Enduring Understanding (Generalization): Organisms maintain a constant internal environment called homeostasis in order to ensure survival. Standard: “Describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments. ” Student Performance: Construct a graph demonstrating homeostasis in complex organisms. (activity or performance? )
Science: Working with Student Performances Enduring Understanding (Generalization): Organisms maintain a constant internal environment called homeostasis in order to ensure survival. Standard: “Describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments. ” Student Performance: Construct a graph demonstrating homeostasis in complex include a statement on the importance of homeostasis when organisms live in changing external environments.
Driving Teaching Through Questions Rather Than Objectives
Geographic Regions and Cultures of the Eastern U. S. Objectives • Understand the impact of geographic regions on the development of culture. . . • Identify the geographic regions of the eastern United States. • Compare the regions of the east. • List the geographic features for each region • Describe how people use their land to meet basic needs • Identify your enthusiasm for this study
Geographic Regions and Cultures of the Eastern U. S. Guiding Questions • Why do regions differ? • How do regions in the east differ? • Why do different cultures use land differently? • How do the arts of Native American cultures reflect their natural surroundings?
Geographic Regions and Cultures of the Eastern U. S. Guiding Questions • Why do Native American arts so often reflect nature? • How is a culture affected by its geography? • How is geography affected by a culture?
Types of Guiding Questions Philosophical – (or “essential questions”) “Can a nation have too much wealth? ” “Should a more powerful nation dominate weaker nations? ” “Is war ever justifiable? ” Conceptual – “Why do nations desire to explore new lands? ” Factual - “In what ways did the early American explorers disrupt Native American cultures? ”
The Value of Concept-based Instruction • Engages the personal intellect and emotions of the student; increases motivation for learning. • Requires a higher level of thinking. • Teaches students how to see patterns and connections between facts and ideas. • Provides relevant focus for content study.
The Value of Concept-based Instruction • Facilitates the transfer of knowledge. • Meets different ability levels • Creates a brain schema for processing new information • Develops verbal and written fluency with the English language - Develops the art of conversation - Deepens reading comprehension