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What Is Lung Cancer? Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for men and women. It is also the most preventable form of cancer. Tobacco use accounts for 87% of lung cancers. There are two major types of lung cancer: 1. Non-small cell lung cancer (87%) 2. Small cell lung cancer (13%) Lung Cancer Each grows and spreads in different ways and is treated differently.
The American Cancer Society’s Estimates In the United States during 2008: 215, 020 new cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed. 161, 840 deaths will occur as the result of this disease. Lung Cancer
Who Is At Risk? Cigarette smoking is by far the greatest risk factor for lung cancer. The longer a person uses tobacco and the more they use, the greater their risk. If a person quits before cancer develops, the damaged lung tissue gradually improves. Others at risk include: Nonsmokers who breathe in secondhand smoke. Occupational or environmental exposure to radon, asbestos, certain metals, radiation or air pollution. If people are exposed to the above carcinogens & also smoke, their risk is greatly increased. Lung Cancer
Reducing Your Risk Quitting tobacco use, or not starting at all, is by far the best way to prevent lung cancer. Other ways to reduce your risk include: Avoid secondhand tobacco smoke Eat a healthy, balanced diet with at least five servings of fruits and vegetables every day Take protective measures against cancer-causing chemicals at work Monitor indoor radon levels, especially in the home Lung Cancer
Symptoms of lung cancer may include: • Persistent cough • Sputum streaked with blood • Chest pain • Voice change • Recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis Lung Cancer These are also warning signs of other, less serious illnesses, so if they appear, they should be discussed with your doctor.
Detection Because symptoms often do not appear until the disease has spread, early detection is difficult. When lung cancer is diagnosed early, it is usually a result of tests for unrelated conditions. If lung cancer is suspected, tests such as a chest x-ray, analysis of cells in the phlegm, and a biopsy may be done. Lung Cancer
Treatment is most successful when cancer is detected early. Often, two or more treatment methods are used. Patients should thoroughly discuss treatment options with their doctors. Lung Cancer
Treatment Options Surgery to remove tumors, chemotherapy, and radiation—in combination or alone—are common treatments for lung cancer. Surgery – An operation to remove cancer cells. Radiation therapy – Uses high-energy rays to shrink or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy – Uses anticancer drugs that attack cancer cells and normal cells. These drugs are usually given by injection or by mouth. Treatment options depend on cancer type and stage of cancer. Lung Cancer
Survival Rates 5 -year localized survival rate is 49% Localized cancer is cancer that, at the time of diagnosis, had not spread to additional sites within the body. Typically, the earlier a cancer is detected and diagnosed, the more successful the treatment, thus enhancing the survival rate. Only 16% of lung cancers are diagnosed at this early stage. 5 -year overall survival rate is 15% The 5 -year survival rates represent persons who are living 5 years after diagnosis, whether disease-free, in remission, or under treatment. They do not imply that 5 -year survivors have been permanently cured of cancer. Lung Cancer
How Will Cancer Affect Me And My Family? From the time of diagnosis, everyone is affected in some way, even family and friends. The American Cancer Society works to enhance aspects of life often challenged by this disease through: • Reducing the physical toll of cancer. • Reducing barriers to allow those affected to continue with their day-to-day lives. • Reducing the social and financial impact of cancer. Lung Cancer • Preserving the spiritual well-being of those affected.
Patient Concerns People with lung cancer are often distressed about their physical appearance, including weight loss; the social stigma and guilt associated with tobacco use; and end of life issues due to the low survival rate. Other concerns include: Changes in what they are able to do after treatment Impact on finances and loved ones Fear of recurrence Sleep difficulties Lung Cancer Pain Depression
You Are Not Alone In recent years, the quality of life for those who are living with cancer has received increased attention. No one has to make the cancer journey alone. Lung Cancer The American Cancer Society provides sources of information and support to cancer patients, their families, and friends. These include access to secure and private online chats, message boards, and support groups.
Connecting With Others ACS Survivors Network. SM is one source of support for people with cancer and their families and friends. The Network will help you find and talk to others who share your interests and experiences. Visit our Internet site at www. acscsn. org. Lung Cancer
Hope For The Future Tobacco control specialists are studying: How to help people quit tobacco use. How to prevent young people from starting this habit. How to prevent lung cancer in people at high risk. Researchers are also studying: New technologies, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, and tests that identify DNA changes in lung cancer cells. New chemotherapy drugs and drug combinations. Gene therapy’s potential for preventing or treating lung cancer. Lung Cancer
The Bottom Line The number of Americans who get lung cancer is decreasing, primarily due to a decrease in adult tobacco use over the past 30 years. Tobacco use among teens and pre-teens, however, has increased in recent years, raising the potential for higher lung cancer rates in the future. Lung Cancer
The Bottom Line An estimated 45 million adults (21% of the population) are current smokers Until tobacco use is sharply decreased, lung cancer will continue to be the number one cause of cancer death in the United States, killing more than 161, 000 Americans every year. Stopping the use of tobacco could nearly wipe out lung cancer. Lung Cancer
Tobacco Use Prevention Preventing initiation in adolescents is the most effective tobacco use prevention strategy. What prevents initiation? • Increasing the cost of tobacco products through taxes. (Rates of smoking are highly correlated with price of cigarettes. ) • Reducing youth access (prohibit sale to individuals less than 18 years old). • Develop counter-marketing campaigns against tobacco use to show youth are being manipulated by the tobacco industry. Lung Cancer
Tobacco Use Prevention Cont… Additional ways to decrease Tobacco Use: • Support Comprehensive State Tobacco Control Programs • Strengthening Smoking Bans and Restrictions by Supporting Clean Indoor Air Campaigns • Help Smokers Quit Lung Cancer
High Plains Quitlines • Kansas – 1 -866 -KAN-STOP • Missouri – 1 -800 -Quit-Now • Nebraska – 1 -800 -Quit-Now • Oklahoma – 1 -800 -784 -8669 • Texas – 1 -877 -937 -7848 • Hawaii – 1 -800 -Quit-Now Lung Cancer
Contact The American Cancer Society programs and services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. To reach us: Visit the American Cancer Society Internet site at www. cancer. org. Call toll-free, 1– 800–ACS– 2345. Lung Cancer
Additional Resources National Cancer Institute Cancer Information Service Telephone: 1– 800– 4–CANCER (toll free) Internet: www. nci. nih. gov American Lung Association Telephone: 1– 800– 586– 4872 (toll free) or 315– 8700 Internet: www. lungusa. org Lung Cancer 212–
Additional Resources American Heart Association Telephone: 1– 800–AHA-USA 1 (toll free) Internet: www. tobaccofreekids. org Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids Telephone: 202– 296– 5469 Internet: www. tobaccofreekids. org Lung Cancer