Lower Level Brain Structures Lower Level Brain Structures

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Lower Level Brain Structures

Lower Level Brain Structures

Lower Level Brain Structures These are the inner most levels of your brain This

Lower Level Brain Structures These are the inner most levels of your brain This part of the brain developed first

The Brainstem ØBrainstem – the oldest, most basic part of the brain, where the

The Brainstem ØBrainstem – the oldest, most basic part of the brain, where the spinal cord swells and becomes the brain ØThe brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

The Brainstem Cont’d ØMedulla – the base of the brainstem ØThe Medulla is responsible

The Brainstem Cont’d ØMedulla – the base of the brainstem ØThe Medulla is responsible for basic life support functions such as breathing, blood circulation, and swallowing ØDamage to this region leads to almost certain death

The Brainstem Cont’d ØReticular Formation – a nerve network in the brainstem that plays

The Brainstem Cont’d ØReticular Formation – a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling wakefulness and arousal ØThe reticular formation controls an organism’s overall level of alertness. ØDamaging this region can result in a coma

The Thalamus ØThalamus – the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem

The Thalamus ØThalamus – the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem ØThis part of the brain directs messages to the proper regions of the brain for processing

ØCerebellum – the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem ØThe cerebellum

ØCerebellum – the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem ØThe cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements, balance, and muscle memory ØDamage to this region would cause problems with coordination The Cerebellum

The Limbic System – a ring of structures at the border of the brainstem

The Limbic System – a ring of structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral cortex The limbic system helps regulate functions such as memory, fear, aggression, hunger, and thirst The limbic system is made up of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala

Limbic System Cont’d Hypothalamus – A neural structure lying below the thalamus Regulates important

Limbic System Cont’d Hypothalamus – A neural structure lying below the thalamus Regulates important functions such as hunger, thirst, reaction to stress, and body temperature Plays a role in experience of emotion, pleasure, and sexual function

Limbic System Cont’d Hippocampus – neural center in the Limbic System Hippo is Greek

Limbic System Cont’d Hippocampus – neural center in the Limbic System Hippo is Greek for horse Wraps around the thalamus and helps process new memories

Limbic System Cont’d Amygdala – Two almond shaped neural clusters in the limbic system

Limbic System Cont’d Amygdala – Two almond shaped neural clusters in the limbic system Amygdala is Greek for almond The amygdala controls emotions such as fear and anger