Logical Reasoning Breaking Down An Arguments Into Propositions

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Logical Reasoning Breaking Down An Arguments Into Propositions

Logical Reasoning Breaking Down An Arguments Into Propositions

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument 1. Bracket the Propositions. 2. Identify the Conclusion.

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument 1. Bracket the Propositions. 2. Identify the Conclusion. � � � Some arguments contain conclusion indicators such as: therefore, thus, hence, so, which shows that, for these reasons, consequently, it follows that, to help you identify the conclusion. If there is a Conclusion Indicator, CI, circle it and write CI above it. When there is no conclusion indicator ask “what is this proposition trying to prove, or convince me of, or try putting the word therefore, in front of the proposition you think may be the conclusion.

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument �Once you identify the conclusion, draw a double

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument �Once you identify the conclusion, draw a double line under it. �Example: All cats are felines. Lightening is a feline. Therefore, Lightening is a cat.

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument 3. Identify the Premises. � Identify the premises

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument 3. Identify the Premises. � Identify the premises or those propositions that support the conclusion. � Draw a single line under each premise. � Words such as because, since, for, given that, maybe inferred from, the reason is that, as shown by, in view of, are all common Premise Indicators. � If there is a Premise Indicator, circle it, and put PI above it.

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument Example: Students who sit in front of the

Steps to Breaking Down an Argument Example: Students who sit in front of the classroom generally earn higher grades. Therefore, you should move to the front of the class, since I know you want to improve your GPA.