# LOGICAL FALLACIES What is a logical fallacy A

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LOGICAL FALLACIES

What is a logical fallacy? A fallacy is a deceptive, misleading, or false argument There are many forms of logical fallacies � They all have one thing in common… bad logic To spot a logical fallacy, ask yourself these questions: � Does the proof hold up? � Am I given the right number of choices? � Does the proof lead to the conclusion? Logical fallacies are not forbidden in debate � However, if you are caught using them, there goes your credibility

Fallacy #1: The False Comparison https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=0 ak 7 GZxp F 2 U The fallacy uses bad proof This fallacy lumps examples into the wrong category � Some fruits are purple, this donut has fruit Other examples: “Made with all natural ingredients” � Break the argument down: Some natural things are good for you, so all natural things must be

More False Comparison examples https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=9 NRSqh. Jye. U All ducks swim. All fish swim. All ducks are fish. Child: “Dad, why don’t we have a Play. Station? Everybody else has one. ” Reductio ad absurdem fallacy � “If everyone jumped off a cliff, would you do it, too? ” “I’m a successful business man. Elect me mayor and I’ll run a successful city”

How to Counter the Argument All you need to do to counter this argument is find one example to make it false, or show that the two are not the same “Purple is a fruit” � Give the example that an eggplant is not a fruit “Everyone else has a Play. Station” � Name one person who doesn’t own a Play. Station Eating lunch and wearing skirts � Completely different things

Fallacy #2: Bad Example, or Hasty Generalization https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ow. Gyk. Vbf g. UE This fallacy uses a small sample size to apply to a larger group Synonyms: stereotyping, profiling These could be tricky to spot because the person making the argument might use facts or statistics to support their argument

More Bad Example examples https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TBn. B 2 AY 2 _vw “Le. Bron James wears a certain kind of sneaker; buy it and you’ll become a basketball star. ” Got Milk campaign Arizona’s immigration law Women are bad drivers

How to Counter this Argument You need to show that the example used was a bad example or led to a hasty generalization � You can give examples where the proof doesn’t hold up (Say that you have Le. Bron’s shoes and have yet to slam dunk a basketball) � Point out that your opponent's hasty generalization is racist, sexist, etc. (note: attack the argument, not your opponent)

Fallacy #3: Ignorance as Proof https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=2 Ra 8_gy. Y 9 R 8 Also known as Argumentum ad Ignorantiam This is where you claim that something has not yet been that it is not the case Also, if something has not yet been disproven that it is the case � No one has ever provided real evidence that ghosts do not exist; therefore, ghosts exist

More Ignorance as Proof examples Super 8 clip Remember, things cannot be proven without evidence � If someone tries to argue that something is true because of a lack of evidence to the contrary they are using the ignorance as proof fallacy Fake scientist: “My theory has never been disproven, so it must be true. ”

How to Counter this Argument Present your opponent with another argument that has never been proven or disproven, and make sure that it is absurd � Opponent: “I believe in extrasensory perception and UFOs because scientists have never disproved them. ” � You: “Scientists have never disproved that toys come to life behind closed doors either. Do you believe that? ”

Fallacy #4: Tautology The conclusion basically repeats the premise “The Cowboys are favored to win since they’re the better team” Politician: “You can trust me because I’m an honest man” Sportscaster: “The way for this team to make a comeback is to score more points” “You won’t have trouble selling this product because it sells itself” Anything that is redundant or can be responded with “Duh” falls into this category

How to Counter this Argument This fallacy is very easy to counter � All you have to do is point the redundancy in their argument You can also ask for evidence to better explain the conclusion � “How are the Cowboys a better team? ”

Fallacy #5: False Choice, or False Dilemma https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Gg. Lr. MHm 32 j 4 This is used when the number of choices you are given is not the number of choices that actually exist It could be used with a loaded question � Attorney: “When did you start beating your wife? ” False Dilemma is when you are made to decide between only two choices � Parent: “You can either eat liver and onions for dinner, or you can starve to death

More False Choice examples https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=5 t. Wwq. W 18 r. Y “If you ain’t first, you’re last. ” “There are two types of people in the world: Greeks, and those who wish they were Greek” Other examples?

How to Counter this Argument This argument is easy to spot and easy to counter, simply point out that there are other options to choose from � “If you ain’t first, you’re last” � Or you could be second, or third, or even fourth

Fallacy #6: Red Herring https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=GLd. DQ 32 lt i. A The speaker deliberately brings up an irrelevant issue This is also known as the Chewbacca Defense Any argument that could be a distraction from the real argument can be considered a Red Herring

More Red Herring examples https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=s. T_Vh. D rn 8 NY Straw Man tactic � Your opponent ignores your argument and sets up an argument that is easier for them to take down � Husband: “Why are we out of orange juice? ” � Wife: “Well you tell me why the dishes aren’t done. ”

How to Counter this Argument To counter the Red Herring or Straw Man argument you have to point out that your opponent steered away from the issue Focus the issue back onto the real topic and keep it there

Fallacy # 7: Wrong Ending https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=k. Iv 3 m 2 g. Mg. UU This is known as the slippery slope fallacy � If we allow a reasonable thing, it will inevitably lead to an extreme version of that thing � This is often used in the debate against gay marriage Politician: “If we pass laws against fully-automatic weapons, then it won’t be long before we pass laws on all weapons, and then we will begin to restrict other rights, and finally we will end up living in a communist state. Thus, we should not ban fully-automatic weapons. ” Parent: “If I let you get a cell phone then I have to let your brothers and sisters get a cell phone”

More Wrong Ending examples https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=v. RJUv. FG 8 gb. E Post hoc ergo proptor hoc � “after this, therefore because of this” � Also known as the Chanticleer Fallacy This followed that, therefore that caused this Sports fan: “I wore my purple sweater and my team won. I will always wear my purple sweater on game days!”

How to Counter this Argument This one is easy to argue against, but you just have to be careful to catch the argument All you have to do to argue against it is point out that correlation does not cause causation � This works for post hoc ergo proptor hoc For slippery slope you have to point out that your opponent has no evidence to support their slippery slope argument, because it hasn’t happened yet � Response to politician in favor of fully-automatic weapons: “Where is your evidence to support your claim? ” � Also point out how ridiculous their argument is: “Your