# Logical Fallacies Engl 1302 Heilig What are logical

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Logical Fallacies Engl 1302 Heilig

What are logical fallacies? Bad! Common errors in reasoning Often substitute emotion for evidence Often oversimplify arguments Are not always obvious

Identifying Fallacies There are many common fallacy types Finding fallacies in others’ arguments will: Help prevent manipulation Help you identify them in your own writing Make you a more mindful/aware citizen

Example: Begging the Question When you restate your claim in a different way and pass it off as evidence Also known as circular logic or an unsupported assertion Accept the conclusion, no questions asked Examples: Students should not be allowed to park in lots now reserved for faculty because those lots should be for faculty only. Active euthanasia is morally acceptable. It is a decent, ethical thing to help another human being escape suffering through death.

Hasty Generalization, False Cause, and Post Hoc These fallacies all have to do with drawing conclusions from evidence that might not be connected Hasty generalization: coincidence = fact False cause: correlation = causation Post hoc (after this): A happens because of B, because A has happened because of B before

Oversimplification and Slippery Slope These fallacies make huge conclusions based on weak assumptions or little evidence Oversimplification: A quick black & white answer to a complex problem No one would be depressed if we gave everyone the boxed set of Star Wars blu-rays. Slippery Slope: A leads to B leads to C because of Reasons Because I overslept, I missed class, which means I’m going to fail the final, which means I’m going to drop out of college, which means I won’t get a job, which means I now have to live in a van down by the river

Rationalization & Bandwagon These fallacies are based on excuses or deflection of the main issue at hand -Rationalization: Provides an explanation or defense of something -My science-fiction sequel to Hamlet would have made bank if people still appreciated the arts! -Bandwagon: Everyone else is doing it, why not me? -Bob drinks six shots of tequila every weeknight and passes all his classes, so everyone should be able to do the same thing

Ad Hominem, Polarization, and Straw Man These are fallacies which attack the source of the argument instead of the argument itself Ad hominem (against the man): personal attacks on the author/name-calling Bill Nye smokes marijuana, so what he has to say about science isn’t valid. Polarization: Us vs. Them, us = awesome, them = the worst people on the planet People who think Star Trek is better than Star Wars are delinquents with no moral values Straw Man: Oversimplifying or misrepresenting the opposing side (setting up a dummy to attack) Others want gun control because they hate freedom.

Examples: Outbreak! http: //thedailyshow. cc. com/videos/g 1 lev 1/an-outbreak-of-liberal-idiocy http: //mediamatters. org/video/2011/10/19/dana-loesch-brings-the-nazis-like-occupy -wall-s/182296 What fallacies do you see in the following clips?