- Slides: 28
Living Things Characteristics of Living Things: 1. Organisms are made of small building blocks called CELLS. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism. Unicellular – single-celled organisms – bacteria. Multicellular – many-celled organisms animals 2. The cells of living things are composed of chemicals. (Water, carbohydrates, protein) 3. Living things use energy. 4. They respond to their environment. Stimulus – change in surrounding’s. Ex. Temp/light. Response – action or change in behavior. Ex. Leaves change color. 5. 5. All living things grow and develop. 6. 6. Living things reproduce.
Living Things The Needs of All Living Things: 1. Water. 2. H 2 O is needed to obtain chemicals and nutrients, reproduce, move, 3. grow, etc. 4. 2. Food. 5. Autotrophs – make their own food. Ex. Plants 6. Heterotrophs – cannot make their own food. Ex. Animals 7. 3. Living Space. Place to live – shelter. 8. 4. Stable Internal Conditions. 9. Homeostasis – the maintenance of internal conditions. Allows cells to function. Ex. Body Temperature stays the same even if cold outside.
Living Things - What Is Life? Life Comes From Life Francesco Redi designed one of the first controlled experiments. In his experiment, Redi showed that flies do not spontaneously arise from decaying meat.
Living Things - What Is Life? Life Comes From Life Louis Pasteur’s carefully controlled experiment demonstrated that bacteria arise only from existing bacteria.
Living Things End of Section: What Is Life?
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Levels of Classification As you move down the levels of classification, the number of organisms decreases. The organisms at lower levels share more characteristics with each other.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Many hundreds of years before Linnaeus, a Greek scholar named Aristotle developed a classification system for animals. Aristotle first divided animals into those he considered to have blood and those he did not. This graph shows Aristotle’s classification system for “animals with blood. ”
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Reading Graphs: Into how many groups were these animals classified? 3
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Interpreting Data: Which group made up the largest percentage of animals? Animals that fly
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Calculating: What percentage of these animals either fly or swim? 78%
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Inferring: In Aristotle’s classification, where would a cow be classified? A whale? Cow- animals that walk, run, or crawl; whale- animals that swim.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Aristotle and Classification Predicting: Would Aristotle’s classification system be used today? Explain. Possible answer: This system includes only three categories, so it may not be very useful today. It also does not match that of modern scientists, who use characteristics other than movement to classify animals. For example, frogs and lions belong to very different groups.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Taxonomic Keys Taxonomic keys are useful tools for determining the identity of organisms.
Living Things - Classifying Organisms Evolution and Classification Species with similar evolutionary histories are classified more closely together. These Galapagos finches may have arisen from a single species and changed gradually over time to become three separate species. Notice the differences in their appearance, especially their beaks. eats
Living Things Three Domains of Classification Bacteria – Made of only one cell (unicellular). Some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs. Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus. Genetic code is not contained within a nucleus. Archaea – (ancient) like bacteria, they are prokaryotic, but are found in the most extreme environments (holt springs, very salty waters, intestines of cows!!) Archaea are believed to be a link with the ancient Earth. Eukarya- all other living things. Known as eukaryotes. They have their genetic information contained within a nucleus and are more organized than prokaryotes. Four kingdoms – protists, fungi, plants, animals.
Living Things 4 Kingdoms of Eukarya: Fungi – most are multicellular eukaryotes. Some are unicellular – ex. yeast. Found almost everywhere on land, but only a few live in fresh water. All fungi are heterotrophs. Most feed by absorbing nutrients from dead or decaying organisms. Examples – mushrooms, molds, mildew, athlete’s foot. Plants – multicellular eukaryotes that live on land in the water. Plants are autotrophs that make their own food. Plants provide food for most of the heterotrophs on land. Examples – mosses, ferns, trees. Animals – all are multicellular eukaryotes. All animals are also heterotrophs. Animals have many adaptations to help them survive in different environments. Examples – amphibians, fish, mammals. Protists – all other living things are protists. The “Odds and Ends” kingdom. Most are unicellular, some are not (seaweeds). Some are autotrophic, others are heterotrophic. Examples – amoebas, paramecium, algae.
Living Things End of Section: Classifying Organisms
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms Three Domains of Life In the three-domain system of classifications, all known organisms belong to one of three domains–Bacteria, Archaea, or Eukarya.
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms Comparing and Contrasting As you read, compare and contrast the characteristics of organisms in domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya by completing a table like the one below. Characteristics of Organisms Domain or Kingdom Cell Type and Number Able to Make Food? Bacteria Prokaryotes; unicellular Some are able to make food Archaea Prokaryotes; unicellular Some are able to make food Plants Eukaryotes; unicellular or multicellular Eukaryotes; multicellular Animals Eukaryotes; multicellular No Eukarya: Protists Fungi No Yes
Living Things - Domains and Kingdoms Links on Kingdoms Click the Sci. Links button for links on kingdoms.
Living Things End of Section: Domains and Kingdoms
Living Things - The Origin of Life The Atmosphere of Early Earth On ancient Earth, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane were probably the most abundant gases in the atmosphere. There were frequent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and violent storms.
Living Things - The Origin of Life Identifying Supporting Evidence As you read, identify the evidence that supports scientists’ hypothesis of how life arose on Earth. Write the evidence in a graphic organizer like the one below. Evidence Hypothesis Fossil evidence of achaea-like organisms Origin of life Fossils dated to be between 3. 4 and 3. 5 billion years old.
Living Things - The Origin of Life Links on the Origin of Life Click the Sci. Links button for links on the origin of life.
Living Things - The Origin of Life Modeling Conditions on Early Earth Click the Video button to watch a movie about modeling conditions on early Earth.
Living Things End of Section: The Origin of Life
Living Things Graphic Organizer Living Things need Homeostasis Food Living space Water made by to provide Autotrophs eaten by Heterotrophs Shelter Food & water
Living Things End of Section: Graphic Organizer