LidarMeasured Global Wind Profiles Session Space By R

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Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Session: Space By R. M. Hardesty OAR mike. hardesty@noaa. gov

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Session: Space By R. M. Hardesty OAR mike. [email protected] gov and Robert Atlas (OAR) (presented by James Yoe (NWS) ) August 22 -23, 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop Source: ESA

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles • • Emerging Technologi es Doppler lidar provides full wind

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles • • Emerging Technologi es Doppler lidar provides full wind profiles by analyzing scattered laser light from both aerosols and molecules. Averaging over tens-of-km horizontally is required to obtain sufficient signal levels (Aeolus: 85 km) Backscattered signal spectrum Molecular scatter ~10 km Aerosol scatter As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop Two-look concept 2

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Lidar wind measurements will fill the gap

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Lidar wind measurements will fill the gap in current satellite observations that provide useful but limited profile information • Atmospheric motion vectors (AMV) winds from cloud and water vapor images are calculated at limited levels in cloudy or moist regions • Scatterometer instruments measure wind speed at the ocean surface • Space-based lidar provides the missing wind profile information As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop 3

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es ● Aeolus, the first wind lidar in

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es ● Aeolus, the first wind lidar in space, is scheduled for launch by ESA in January 2018 ● Product: Line of sight wind speed and aerosol backscatter profiles from surface to 30 km in 24 layers; 85 km horizontal resolution; Level 2 b data for assimilation by forecast centers ● NOAA Connections: Aeolus Mission Advisory Group, Calibration/Validation, Data Assimilation/Forecast Evaluation Wind from molecular scatter Wind from aerosol scatter As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop Aeolus Daily Coverage: Polar orbit (Source: ESA) 4

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es ● US is also targeting lidar winds

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es ● US is also targeting lidar winds from space (highest weather priority in the 2008 Decadal Survey) ● Development partners: NASA (technology development and demonstration); NOAA (OSSE studies, space-based winds working group); Industry/Academia (technology development and demonstration) ● US focus: two-look (vector) winds ● Status: Airborne demonstrations of technologies ongoing, lidar winds science mission from International Space Station (ISS) developed and proposed As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop ATHENA/OAWL Daily Coverage: ISS Orbit 5

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Key Capability: Fills the need for global

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Key Capability: Fills the need for global observations of wind profiles, particularly over the tropics and S. Hemisphere • In contrast to millions of temperature and humidity profiles obtained daily, wind profile observations are limited (sondes and aircraft observations) • Despite limited number of wind observations available, winds have nearly the forecast impact of radiances • Impact of the observational imbalance is most significant in tropics, north Pacific, Southern Hemisphere As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop 6

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es OSSES have shown that lidarmeasured wind profiles

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es OSSES have shown that lidarmeasured wind profiles will provide significant benefits for NOAA’s weather and climate missions • Reduction in uncertainty of wind analyses • Significant Improvement in medium range forecasts • Improved coverage over poorlysampled regions such as the tropics and Southern Hemisphere • Better hurricane track forecasts • Improved reanalyses for detection of climate trends As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop 200 h. Pa OSSEs (here 200 h. Pa Wind error in tropics show forecast improvements from lidar winds ~ 4 m/s differences Comparisons of GFS/ECMWF reanalyses show large wind disparity in poorly observed regions 7

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Recent Developments and Status Emerging Technologi es • Aeolus: Mission

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Recent Developments and Status Emerging Technologi es • Aeolus: Mission ready for launch (January, 2018); Completed: system design, airborne testing, prototype development, lifetime testing, space qualification. • US Aerosol-only (coherent) winds mission: 30 year ground airborne development; NASA/ESA Airborne Lidar Wind. Val Mission Completed: airborne laser transmitter development, airborne demonstrations. • US Aerosol/molecular (direct): Earth Venture ISS space-based aerosol-backscatter winds mission designed, costed, proposed; Completed: Instrument prototype development; airborne testing and validation; mission implementation and science plans, proposal submitted. As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop 8

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Additional Information ● 2017 Decadal Survey White

Lidar-Measured Global Wind Profiles Emerging Technologi es Additional Information ● 2017 Decadal Survey White Paper: http: //surveygizmoresponseuploads. s 3. amazonaws. com/fileupload s/15647/2289356/4403 d 5 d 0 ee 9051865 a 1 f 28 d 84 ac 051 dda 3_Hardesty+RMichael. pdf ● NASA Wind lidar: https: //airbornescience. nasa. gov/instrument/DAWN ● Spaced-based Wind Lidar Working Group: http: //cires 1. colorado. edu/events/lidarworkshop/LWG/ ● Aeolus https: //directory. eoportal. org/web/eoportal/satellitemissions/a/aeolus ● Ball Aerospace Wind Lidar (talk tomorrow): http: //www. ball. com/aerospace/programs/oawl As presented at the 2017 NOAA Emerging Technologies Workshop 9