- Slides: 13
Liberal State 1918 -23 Why did Italy go to war? "Do you want to be spectators in this great drama? Or do you want to be its fighters? " To understand the Government handling of post-war issues including: • economic impact • impact of ‘mutilated victory’ including the situation in Fiume • political difficulties - the response of political parties and democratic
Supported War • Catholics • Liberals • Nationalists • Army • Socialists Communists Against War
Economic Legacy of FWW • What problems had Italy suffered as a result of the FWW? • How many men had Italy lost? • How much and from whom had Italy borrow money from and how did it effect their economy? • Who was harmed by inflation and who did well out of inflation?
Unemployment and industrial disputes • Why were industrialists concerned at the end of the war? • Why did unemployment seem a bitter blow?
Socialist ‘Threat’ Mutilated Victory • Why did people flock to the Socialist movement? • How did the Socialists fare in elections? • Who feared the Socialists and why? • What were landowners concerns? How far was the Liberal State in Italy undermined by World War I? What to include Effect of WW 1 (‘Mutilated Victory) Rise of the right Weak liberal leaders Coalition governments Socialist advances
Fiume • On September 1919 Gabrielle D’Annunzio and his 2000 men seized town of Fiume • D’Annunzio ruled for one year in defiance of Italian government • Famed for his flamboyant and charismatic personality • Seen as a public hero Why do you think D’Annunzio was a role model for Mussolini?
Liberal Problems in Parliament • How had the Liberals achieved in the 1919 elections? • Why were the Socialists an increased threat? • How did the right and left perceive Nitti’s government? • How did Giolitti attempt to stabilise the country?
Liberal Problems in Parliament • Liberal’s had only 180 of the 508 seats in Parliament • Chamber of deputies now contained revolutionary Socialist Party with 156 seats • Popalari (PPI) founded Jan 1919 by the Pope led by Dan Sturzo • Did cooperate with Liberals but very wary of them due to anti-clerical stance • Nitti’s government hated by the left and the right particularly over Fiume • Giolitti formed a coalition government that relied on Catholic support
Advance of the Socialists • In September 1920 engineering workers went on strike. Why did they do this and how many became involved? • The government did not intervene why was this and how did the employers and conservatives react to this? • The strike collapsed as Giolitti had predicted but discredited the Liberal government with the Right
Advance of the Socialists • The situation in the countryside was deteriorating for the Liberals • In what areas did Socialism take off and to what extent did socialist membership grow? • To what extent did Socialist power grow in 1920? • How were Landowners treated? • How did urban middle classes respond to the threat, particularly shopkeepers?
November 1919 Elections • • Universal Suffrage and Proportional Representation Popolari – 100 Seats • No single voice or ideological agreement • Socialists – 156 seats – the largest party • Northern based – Irresponsible and uncompromising leadership – Split over Soviet ‘Opportunities’ • Independent Socialists – 21 • Liberals – 23 rightists – 91 Giolitti Centrists – Radical liberals down to 67 • Fascists – ZERO – Nothing – Nada – Not one Deputy! • No overall majority! Radical Liberal Nitti soldiers on with Minority government
Liberal Suicide • Nitti’s government falls over Fiumi • Giolitti Coalition – Liberals, Radicals, Popolari and some Socialists – Economic Chaos • Strikes, clashes, Lock outs • Giolitti remains ‘Neutral’ – Enrages Industrialists – Does not satisfy Trade Unionists/Socialists – Fascists note weakness and offer to fill gap • Leads to deal with the devil!
Revenge of the right • • How did the right begin to fight back? How did the right use Fascist groups? How did the police respond to the sqaudrismo? What did the Fascists do to their enemies? Homework How far was the Liberal State in Italy undermined by World War I? What to include • Effect of WW 1 (‘Mutilated Victory) • Rise of the right • Weak liberal leaders • Coalition governments • Socialist advances