Levels of Planning Table of Contents Levels of

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Levels of Planning

Levels of Planning

Table of Contents Levels of Planning • • Long-Term Planning Procedures Curriculum Short-Term Planning

Table of Contents Levels of Planning • • Long-Term Planning Procedures Curriculum Short-Term Planning Weekly Structure Daily Plans Challenges to Lesson Planning

Teachers. . . ”need to have a sense of where they are going, why

Teachers. . . ”need to have a sense of where they are going, why they want their students to go there, and how they and their students are going to get there” (National Academy of Education, 2005, p. 16). LONG-TERM PLANNING

Long-Term Planning: Procedures: • Help classrooms run smoothly and support students’ independence • Should

Long-Term Planning: Procedures: • Help classrooms run smoothly and support students’ independence • Should be intentionally determined by the teacher • Should be established at the beginning of the year • Can be traditional or creative—find what works for you (and your students)

Areas in Need of Classroom Procedures • When/how to sharpen pencils • How to

Areas in Need of Classroom Procedures • When/how to sharpen pencils • How to transition to a group area • Lunch preferences • How to walk in the hall • How to turn in papers • What information to include at the top of papers

Long-Term Planning: Curriculum Year-Long Planning—Outlining and organizing all of the information expected to be

Long-Term Planning: Curriculum Year-Long Planning—Outlining and organizing all of the information expected to be taught in a given school year; remains relatively stable from year to year • • • Curriculum maps Pacing guides Standards frameworks Grade-level benchmarks Scope and sequence

Long-Term Planning: Curriculum Unit Planning—Organizing standards into manageable pieces of related material • Lasts

Long-Term Planning: Curriculum Unit Planning—Organizing standards into manageable pieces of related material • Lasts 2 to 9 weeks • May or may not integrate subject areas • Often missing from classroom instruction

Unit Planning • “Big Idea” and Thematic Instruction Identify related themes/generalizations in the standards

Unit Planning • “Big Idea” and Thematic Instruction Identify related themes/generalizations in the standards Select appropriate associated resources Plan instructional activities to support the content Big Idea planning typically remains focused in a content area (the Revolutionary War, our solar system, folk tales) • Thematic Instruction is focused on integrating content areas around a broader theme (adaptation, courage, community) • •

Unit Planning Backwards Design (Wiggins & Mc. Tighe, 2005) The student will be able

Unit Planning Backwards Design (Wiggins & Mc. Tighe, 2005) The student will be able to ______. • Identify Desired Results As shown on _____ assessment. • Determine Acceptable Results Learning will occur through ___. • Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction

Unit Planning: Warnings! • Activity Focus: Putting together lots of fun activities around a

Unit Planning: Warnings! • Activity Focus: Putting together lots of fun activities around a topic and calling it a unit, despite the lack of focus on particular learning goals/standards • Coverage Focus: Moving through instruction in almost lockstep fashion in order to ensure that everything is “covered”

Unit Plan Template

Unit Plan Template

SHORT-TERM PLANNING

SHORT-TERM PLANNING

Short-Term Planning: Weekly Schedule • “Out of classroom” time generally dictated at the school

Short-Term Planning: Weekly Schedule • “Out of classroom” time generally dictated at the school level • Largest blocks of time generally dedicated to literacy and math instruction • Science and social studies fit in smaller spaces and/or are taught on alternate days or alternating units • Be flexible

Short-Term Planning: Instructional Routines are recurring events within a schedule designed specifically to: •

Short-Term Planning: Instructional Routines are recurring events within a schedule designed specifically to: • Decrease complexity • Minimize confusion • Prevent loss of instructional time (Ryan & Cooper, 2012)

Instructional Routine Comparison Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Whole Group Story Share

Instructional Routine Comparison Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Whole Group Story Share and Vocabulary Work Guided Reading and Work Station Rotations Reader’s Workshop

Short-Term Planning: Daily Plans • Lessons should be structured around a specific objective or

Short-Term Planning: Daily Plans • Lessons should be structured around a specific objective or two • Some lessons last 5 to 10 minutes, whereas others last 3 days (or more!) • Should always include means of assessing student progress toward the objective

Short-Term Planning : Objectives • Observable behavior (think of Bloom’s Taxonomy) Which one is

Short-Term Planning : Objectives • Observable behavior (think of Bloom’s Taxonomy) Which one is an appropriate objective? After reading Memoirs of a Goldfish, students will be able to independently identify the setting, main character, and problem of the story in writing. Students will understand the parts of a story after reading Memoirs of a Goldfish.

Short-Term Planning: Assessment • Group assessment is not enough; assessing individual performance is key.

Short-Term Planning: Assessment • Group assessment is not enough; assessing individual performance is key. • Assessment should be directly related to the objective. • Assessment should be formatted in a way that matches the expectations of the objective.

Short-Term Planning: Resources and Materials • Not all have equivalent instructional value. • Useful

Short-Term Planning: Resources and Materials • Not all have equivalent instructional value. • Useful resources and materials are most easily found after the objectives have been determined and assessments have been developed. (Remember the principles of backwards design? ) • Resources and materials should be designed and selected with your particular students in mind.

Short-Term Planning: Lesson Structure • Modeling (“I Do”) • Guided Practice (“We Do”) •

Short-Term Planning: Lesson Structure • Modeling (“I Do”) • Guided Practice (“We Do”) • Small-Group Guided Practice (“You all Do”) • Partnered Guided Practice (“You Two Do”) • Independent Practice (“You Do”)

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it” Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “We do it” Collaborative Independent

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it” Focus Lesson Guided Instruction “We do it” Collaborative Independent “You all do it/ You two do it ” “You do it alone” STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (based on Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)

Sample Lesson Plan Template

Sample Lesson Plan Template

Challenges to Effective Lesson Planning • Balancing breadth and depth • Incorporating both cognitive

Challenges to Effective Lesson Planning • Balancing breadth and depth • Incorporating both cognitive and affective goals for learning • Avoiding fragmentation • Striving for both relevance and rigor (The National Academy for Education, 2005)

More Challenges to Effective Lesson Planning • Use of instructional time • Textbooks •

More Challenges to Effective Lesson Planning • Use of instructional time • Textbooks • Conformity vs. Collaboration

Summary • Year-long planning, unit planning, and daily planning are each critical. • Planning

Summary • Year-long planning, unit planning, and daily planning are each critical. • Planning never ends; it is an essential part of the instructional cycle. • Planning forces teachers to think about what needs to be accomplished and how to most effectively use time to make that happen. • Planning is not the same as finding activities. • Lesson plans are works in progress that must be adapted based on students’ needs and reactions to instruction.

References National Academy of Education. (2005). A good teacher in every classroom: Preparing the

References National Academy of Education. (2005). A good teacher in every classroom: Preparing the highly qualified teachers our children deserve. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pearson, P. D. , & Gallagher, M. C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317– 344. Ryan, K. , & Cooper, J. M. (2012). Those who can, teach (13 th ed. ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Wiggins, G. , & Mc. Tighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.