- Slides: 41
LET’S LEARN ABOUT SUDAN AND SOUTHERN SUDAN – A TERRIBLE EQUATION: OCCUPATION + INDEPENDENCE + CIVIL WAR #1 + CIVIL WAR #2 + A NEW NATION + ANOTHER CIVIL WAR = A BIG, SAD, TRAGIC MESS!!! INDEPENDENCE +
Standards SS 7 CG 2 The student will explain the structures of the modern governments of Africa. b. Explain how political, economic, and social conflicts resulted in the independence of South Sudan.
Sudan Before 2011
Sudan and South Sudan
MOST FAMOUS MAN FROM SUDAN IN THE USA – MANUTE BOL Came to the USA to play basketball 7 feet, 7 inches Tall His grandpa was 7’ 10!! Born into the Dinka Tribe
THE MOST FAMOUS MEN IN SUDAN – You will learn about them today. Omar Bashir – President of (North) Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit President of South Sudan Riek Machar Vice-President of South Sudan.
Sudan and South Sudan • Was once the largest country in Africa • The south split away from the north IN 2011 so now we have SUDAN and SOUTH SUDAN • Sudan split in two because the north and south could not get along…they still don’t.
Colonization • Great Britain established colonial rule and controlled the region (Sudan) in the 19 th century. (Britain also established colonial rule over America before we achieved independence…HINT – The 4 th of July!!) • In 1924, the British divided the region into two territories: the Arabic-speaking Muslim north, and the mostly Englishspeaking Christian and Animist south. • What problems could you predict might arise from this division?
The northern region is home to mainly Arabspeaking Muslims. But in the southern region, there is no dominate culture. The Dinka and Nuer are the largest of nearly 200 ethnic groups.
Compare and Contrast – What similarities and differences do you note? Northern Arab Soldiers Southern Sudan Soldiers
Play Experts in Uganda call for end to South Sudan refugee crisis to connect the current refugee crisis to the refugee crisis we are reading about in ALWTW. What connection can you make between the news report and ALWTW How many refugees have arrived in Uganda? What challenges do large numbers of refugees bring to a country? Think about the camps that were described in ALWTW. Who does Uganda want to help? (Published on Sep 22, 2016 - International relations experts in Uganda have called for concrete steps to end the South Sudan refugee crisis that has driven the people out of their homeland. The call comes as the number of South Sudan refugees hits the 1, 000 mark, raising concerns over an imminent struggle for available resources. )
The Two Biggest Tribes in South Sudan THE DINKA AND THE NUER
THE NUER The Nuer nation of cattle herders live in the south of Sudan. The Nuer receive facial markings as part of their initiation into adulthood. The most common initiation pattern among males consists of six parallel lines, which are cut across the forehead, often with a dip in the lines above the nose. Crying during initiation is considered shameful. Nuer boy just after initiation
THE DINKA The Dinka nation of cattle herders live in the south of Sudan. Dinka can be recognized by initiation tribal marks of several (often three) parallel lines or Vshaped marks are made as small cuts onto the boy's forehead. By becoming a warrior he protects village from predators and enemies. Crying during initiation is considered shameful. Women also have marks.
One Nation • In the 1940 s, Great Britain merged the two areas together to be one nation with a northern government and Arabic as the official language. • Southern Sudanese are mainly Christian and Animist, they don’t speak Arabic (they speak tribal languages) and so they were shut of the new government. • Does this seem fair? Why/Why not?
The South felt discriminated against because the government was based in the Northern city of Khartoum.
Independence • In 1956, Sudan gained its independence from Great Britain, but there was still a lot of tension between the north and south. • South Sudanese were not happy with northern rule.
Sudan’s flag raised at its independence ceremony in 1956.
st 1 Civil War • The first of Sudan’s two civil wars broke out in 1955 and lasted until 1972. • Tribes/Farmers were fighting over land, southerners felt that northerners got better land jobs • The two sides finally settled on a peace agreement that lasted for 10 years.
OIL Discovered • 1979 Chevron Oil discovers and sets up oil production in the south. • Tribes/Farmers in the south felt that northerners got more benefits from the oil money. • Southern rebels eventually attack the pipelines and shut down oil production
Islamic (Sharia) Law • Fighting began again when the northern government established Islamic law throughout the country. • Southerners were angered at attempts to impose Islamic law on the whole country. • How would you feel if the government changed the law to and made you adopt another language and religion?
OIL = $$$$ THE SOUTH HAD THE OIL BUT NEEDED TO PUMP THE OIL NORTH THROUGH PIPELINES SO THAT IT COULD BE SENT TO THE RED SEA AND EXPORTED ON OIL TANKERS. THE FIGHTING SHUT DOWN OIL PRODUCTION FROM 1984 TO 1999
THIS IS WHAT A CIVIL WAR SOUNDS LIKE: https: //youtu. be/__zjz. Wr 0 U 6 s
Islamic (Sharia) Law • Civil war had been going on between the North and South for most of Sudan’s history. • Dictator Omar al-Bashir seized power in 1989 and continued to impose radical Islamic law.
Omar Bashir is the President of (North) Sudan. He is the only sitting head of state wanted for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity for his crimes in Darfur.
20+ years of fighting have led to the displacement of over 4 million people and the deaths of 1. 5 million.
Secession • Secession means to BREAK AWAY and become INDEPENDENT (This is what the southern states attempted to do during the US CIVIL WAR. • In 2005, the northern and southern parts of Sudan signed a peace accord. • This allowed the South to rule itself for six years and then vote in a referendum for independence. • A Referendum is a direct vote by the people. Ex. Britain recently voted in a referendum to separate from the European Union. • In January 2011, nearly 99% of South Sudanese voters called for independence.
South Sudan became an independent country on July 9, 2011.
Salva Kiir Mayardit, the first President of South Sudan. He is from the Dinka Tribe (His trademark hat was a gift from former US President George W. Bush. )
Oil Control • Unfortunately, there are still problems between the two countries. • Sudan and South Sudan are tied economically by oil. • Most of the oil reserves are in South Sudan, but the factories, pipelines, shipping ports, etc. , are in (North)Sudan.
The region exports billions of dollars of oil per year. Southern states produce more than 80% of it, but receive only 50% of the profits, causing tensions between the two countries.
Oil Control • Both countries continue to disagree on how to divide oil wealth and settling border disputes. • Negotiating a deal is critical to both countries’ peace in the future.
Riek Machar is the first Vice-President of South Sudan. He is from the Nuer Tribe He was dismissed from his job after President Salva Kiir Mayardit accused him of trying to overthrow the government. This is called a COUP (pronounced COO) THIS SPARKED ANOTHER CIVIL WAR
South Sudanese War • In December 2013, a political power struggle broke out between President Kiir and his ex-deputy Riek Machar. • This has caused a civil war between the major ethnic groups within the country. • Up to 10, 000 people are estimated to have been killed. • More than 800, 000 people have been displaced inside South Sudan and more than 250, 000 people have fled to neighboring countries as a result of the conflict.
Displaced people in 2016 who have fled the recent fighting in South Sudan.
WHAT IS THE CURRENT SITUATION? FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW TO LEARN THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE SOUTH SUDANESE GOVERNMENT. http: //www. bbc. com/news/world-africa-36796193
POLITICAL CATOON ANALYSIS What does this image tell you about the cartoonists view of the future? Use details from cartoon to support your thinking
A Long Walk to Water focuses on 2 nd Civil War and a group of kids called the Lost Boys. The Lost Boys of Sudan is the name given to the groups of over 20, 000 boys of the Nuer and Dinka ethnic groups who were displaced and/or orphaned during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983– 2005); about 2. 5 million were killed and millions were displaced.