Lethal Bronzing Disease A new palm phytoplasma in

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Lethal Bronzing Disease A new palm phytoplasma in Florida Photo: Monica Elliott, University of

Lethal Bronzing Disease A new palm phytoplasma in Florida Photo: Monica Elliott, University of Florida, Bugwood. org, #5475315

Lethal Bronzing Disease (LBD) Phoenix sp. decline due to LBD Photos: N. Harrison, University

Lethal Bronzing Disease (LBD) Phoenix sp. decline due to LBD Photos: N. Harrison, University of Florida

Geographic Distribution Lethal Bronzing detected LBD has also been detected in parts of Mexico

Geographic Distribution Lethal Bronzing detected LBD has also been detected in parts of Mexico Map based on information from Bahder (2019). Created using: mapchart. net

Distribution in Florida Lethal Bronzing detected Map based on information from Bahder (2019) and

Distribution in Florida Lethal Bronzing detected Map based on information from Bahder (2019) and Halbert et al. (2018). Created using: mapchart. net

Host Plants Coconut palm Cocos nucifera Photos: T. K. Broschat, University of Florida Bismarck

Host Plants Coconut palm Cocos nucifera Photos: T. K. Broschat, University of Florida Bismarck palm Bismarckia nobilis Chinese Fan palm Livistona chinensis

Symptomatic Host Plants Canary Island Date Palm Phoenix canariensis Photos: N. Harrison and M.

Symptomatic Host Plants Canary Island Date Palm Phoenix canariensis Photos: N. Harrison and M. Elliott, University of Florida Edible Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera Wild Date Palm Phoenix sylvestris Cabbage Palm Sabal palmetto

Early Symptoms on Phoenix sylvestris Sudden loss of fruit Discoloration of the leaf tips

Early Symptoms on Phoenix sylvestris Sudden loss of fruit Discoloration of the leaf tips Photos: N. Harrison and M. Elliott, University of Florida Dead inflorescence (flowers)

Later Symptoms on Phoenix sylvestris Dead spear leaf Photos: N. Harrison and M. Elliott,

Later Symptoms on Phoenix sylvestris Dead spear leaf Photos: N. Harrison and M. Elliott, University of Florida Dead spear leaf hanging down from the canopy

Vector of LBD • Haplaxius crudus • (formerly Myndus crudus) • American palm cixiid

Vector of LBD • Haplaxius crudus • (formerly Myndus crudus) • American palm cixiid • Native to Florida • Found through out the southern US and the Caribbean Photos: Left- N. A. Harrison, cabi. org; Right- J. D. de Filippis, University of Florida, www. bugwood. org, #0725076.

Monitoring and Management • Actively monitor for symptoms • Remove infected palms • Preventative

Monitoring and Management • Actively monitor for symptoms • Remove infected palms • Preventative antibiotic injections (Oxytetracycline HCl) • Use of host resistance for long-term solution • Plant resistant palm trees • Diversify the landscape Photo: B. Bader, University of Florida

Reporting a Pest in Florida UF/IFAS Faculty • Local county extension office – https:

Reporting a Pest in Florida UF/IFAS Faculty • Local county extension office – https: //sfyl. ifas. ufl. edu/find-your-local-office/ • Insect ID Lab- Dr. Lyle Buss – http: //entnemdept. ufl. edu/insectid/ • UF/IFAS Plant Diagnostic Center- Dr. Carrie Harmon – https: //plantpath. ifas. ufl. edu/extension/plant-diagnostic-center/

Reporting Distance Diagnostic and Identification System • Digital Diagnostic Collaboration – Extension agents –

Reporting Distance Diagnostic and Identification System • Digital Diagnostic Collaboration – Extension agents – Laboratories – Clinics – Specialists • https: //ddis. ifas. ufl. edu/

Reporting FDACS: Division of Plant Industry • FDACS, DPI Responsibility o Announcing detection or

Reporting FDACS: Division of Plant Industry • FDACS, DPI Responsibility o Announcing detection or establishment of new invasive species. o Reporting is a legal obligation under Florida Statute 581. 091. • Submission Form – http: //forms. freshfromflorida. com/08400. pdf – https: //www. fdacs. gov/Agriculture-Industry/Pests-and-Diseases/How-to. Submit-a-Sample-for-Identification

FDACS, DPI Contact • Dr. Leroy Whilby, Bureau Chief-Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology –

FDACS, DPI Contact • Dr. Leroy Whilby, Bureau Chief-Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology – 352 -395 -4661 – Leroy. [email protected] com • Dr. Paul Skelley, Assistant Chief-Entomology, Nematology and Plant Pathology – 352 -395 -4678 – Paul. [email protected] com • Division of Plant Industry Hotline • 1 -888 -397 -1517 • [email protected] gov

Original Authors • Nigel Harrison, Ph. D. – Associate Professor, Fort Lauderdale Research and

Original Authors • Nigel Harrison, Ph. D. – Associate Professor, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida • Keumchul Shin, D. P. M. – Former Doctor of Plant Medicine Program Graduate Research Assistant, University of Florida • Amanda Hodges, Ph. D – Associate Extension Scientist, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida

Revision Authors • Shannon Mc. Amis, M. S. – Graduate Research Assistant, Doctor of

Revision Authors • Shannon Mc. Amis, M. S. – Graduate Research Assistant, Doctor of Plant Medicine Program, University of Florida • Amanda Hodges, Ph. D – Associate Extension Scientist, Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida

Original Editors • Stephanie Stocks, M. S. – Former Department of Entomology and Nematology,

Original Editors • Stephanie Stocks, M. S. – Former Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida • Matthew D. Smith, Ph. D. – Former Postdoctoral Associate, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida

Original Reviewers • Susan Halbert, Ph. D – Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer

Original Reviewers • Susan Halbert, Ph. D – Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry • Andrew Derksen, M. S. – Former Pest Survey Scientist, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry • Smriti Bhotika, Ph. D. – Former Postdoctoral Associate, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida • Monica Elliott, Ph. D. – Former Professor of Plant Pathology, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center

Collaborating Agencies • U. S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Collaborating Agencies • U. S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) • Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS) • Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), Division of Plant Industry • National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) • Sentinel Plant Network (SPN) • Protect U. S. • University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF -IFAS)

Educational Disclaimer and Citation • This presentation can be used for educational purposes for

Educational Disclaimer and Citation • This presentation can be used for educational purposes for NONPROFIT workshops, trainings, etc. • Citation: – Mc. Amis, S. , Hodges, A. , Harrison, N. , Shin, K. , 2014. Lethal Bronzing Disease, January 2021.

References • Bahder B. W. & E. E. Helmick. 2019. Lethal Bronzing Disease (LBD)

References • Bahder B. W. & E. E. Helmick. 2019. Lethal Bronzing Disease (LBD) (PP 243). Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Accessed January 29, 2020. – https: //edis. ifas. ufl. edu/pdffiles/PP/PP 16300. pdf • Halbert. S. 2008. Pest Alert: Texas Phoenix Palm Decline. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, Division of Plant Industry. Accessed November 22, 2013 – http: //www. freshfromflorida. com/Divisions-Offices/Plant-Industry-Publications/Pest. Texas-Phoenix-Palm-Decline • Alerts/Pest-Alerts- Halbert, S. E. , B. Bextine, S. B. Youngblood, and A. A. Dickens. 2013. Texas phoenix palm decline and potential vectors. APS and MSA joint meeting. 68 -S. Accessed November-23, 2013 – http: //www. apsnet. org/meetings/Documents/2013_Meeting_Abstracts/aps 2013 ab. S 68. htm • • • Halbert, S. E. , Wilson, S. W. , Bextine, B. , and Youngblood, S. B. 2014. Potential planthopper vectors of palm phytoplasmas in Florida with a description of a new species of the genus Omolicna (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). Florida Entomologist (in press). Harrison, N. A. , E. E. Helmick, M. L. Elliott. 2008. Lethal yellowing-type diseases of palms associated with phytoplasmas newly identified in Florida, USA. Annals of Applied Biology 153: 85 -94.

References • • Harrison, N. A. , E. E. Helmick, M. L. Elliott. 2009.

References • • Harrison, N. A. , E. E. Helmick, M. L. Elliott. 2009. First report of a phytoplasma-associated lethal decline of Sabal palmetto in Florida, USA. Plant Pathology 58: 792. Harrison, N. A. , M. Womack, and M. L. Carpio. 2002. Detection and characterization of a lethal yellowing (16 Sr. IV) group phytoplasma in Canary island date palms affected by lethal decline in Texas. Plant Disease 86(6): 676 -681. Accessed December 5, 2013 – • http: //apsjournals. apsnet. org/doi/abs/10. 1094/PDIS. 2002. 86. 6. 676 Harrison, N. and M. Elliott. 2007. Revised 2013. Texas Phoenix Palm Decline. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Accessed October 21, 2013 – http: //edis. ifas. ufl. edu/pp 163 • Jeyaprakash, A. B. D. Sutton, S. E. Halbert and T. S. Schubert. 2011. High-fidelity PCR facilitates detection and identification of a Texas Phoenix palm phytoplasma strain from pigmy date palm, Phoenix roebelenii in Florida. Plant Disease 95: 1475. Accessed July 19, 2013 – http: //www. apsnet. org/publications/plantdisease/2011/November/Pages/ 95_11_1475. 1. aspx

References • Lucid Key. A resource for pests and diseases of cultivated palms, symptoms

References • Lucid Key. A resource for pests and diseases of cultivated palms, symptoms of diseases and disorders Texas Phoenix Palm Decline. Accessed November 22, 2013 – http: //itp. lucidcentral. org/id/palms/symptoms/Texas_Phoenix_Palm_Decline. htm • Oropeza, C. , I. Cordova, M. Narvaez, and N. Harrison. Palm Trunk Sampling for DNA Extraction and Phytoplasma Detection. – http: //flrec. ifas. ufl. edu/pdfs/LY-TPPD-Trunk-Sampling. pdf • Ong, K and S. Mc. Bride. 2009. Palm diseases Caused by Phytoplasmas in Texas. Agri. Life Extension, Texas A& M system. Accessed January 21, 2014 – http: //www. npdn. org/webfm_send/1065 • Texas Department of Agriculture. Texas Phoenix Palm Decline. Accessed October 21, 2013 – http: //www. texasagriculture. gov/Regulatory. Programs/Plant. Quality/Pestand. Disease. Alerts/Date. Palm. Lethal. Decline. aspx