- Slides: 36
Lesson Starter Write a step by step guide describing how to extract DNA from fruit. DNA buffer Word Bank Ethanol Plastic bag Chromosomes
Learning Intention To discuss the morals and controversy surrounding IVF
Infertility • Unable to conceive • Age- egg quality declines after 35 • Infrequent ovulation • Fallopian tube blockage • Not enough sperm • Slow slimming sperm
Test Tube Babies. . • Controversial treatment • IVF- in vitro fertilisation • Fertilisation outside mother’s body • Petri Dish https: //www. twig-world. com/film/medical-marvels-ivf-938/
1. Egg cells are taken from the mother. 4. The embryo is implanted back into the mother. Hormone treatment will make her womb ready to be pregnant. 3. The fertilised eggs are incubated (= kept warm) to let them grow for a few days. 2. The egg is mixed with a sperm sample to allow fertilisation.
Why is IVF controversial?
Some arguments AGAINST IVF • Inherited forms of infertility passed on to offspring • Spare embryos destroyed • Humans deciding whether new life lives or dies • Unnatural; not an act of love • Infertility is an act of God Some arguments FOR IVF • Environmental infertility; not inherited • Reduce genetic diseasesscreen embryos • Likely to be loving parents- not a pleasant treatment • Infertility brings loneliness
Catholic View • The Catholic view is that life can only be given by God and that no one else has the right to give life. Even though the Catholic church are very sympathetic for childless families that want children they believe that conception should be entirely natural. • This means that all fertility treatments involving medical technology are banned for Catholics. The reasons for this are: • IVF includes fertilising several eggs, some of which are thrown away or used for experimentation. Catholics believe this is similar to an abortion as it is killing human life which is banned. • All forms of artificial insemination or surrogacy involve masturbation by the male, which is a sin for Catholic’s. • Embryo technology involves fertilisation taking place through methods other than the sexual intercourse. Catholics believe that God intended procreation through sex only.
The Catholic Church • Against IVF • New life should be created by a loving act • Only God should decide when life begins and ends
Who should receive IVF? Your task: You are members of an advisory group. Resources are limited. You must prioritise who should receive IVF treatment on the NHS. You must consider the welfare of the child above all else. You must choose 3 families who will receive treatment and 3 families to reject, then give your reasons. Family Accept/ Decline Reasons
Who is entitled to IVF? • http: //www. nhs. uk/chq/Pages/889. aspx? Category. ID=54
What do you think?
Lesson Starter: IVF Copy and complete • IVF (in vitro fertilisation) is when fertilisation takes place _____ the mother’s body in a _______. • IVF is controversial because: (2 arguments for and 2 arguments against) • The Catholic Church disagrees with IVF because. .
Learning Intention • To be able to explain what a designer baby is • To understand why designer babies are controversial
What is a designer baby?
What is a designer baby? A baby whose genetic make up has been selected in order to remove a particular defect or to ensure a particular gene is present.
Why would people want a Designer Baby? • • • To prevent potentially inherited diseases. To pick the gender of their baby. To ensure their baby looks a certain way. To ensure their baby is intelligent. To be a tissue match to save another child. -saviour siblinghttps: //www. twig-world. com/film/saviour-siblings-1069/
My Sister’s Keeper • Saviour Sibling • Genetic match • Compatible organs/ blood/ tissues • Renal failure • One kidney- can’t do everything she wants to do
Knowing the facts • ILLEGAL in the UK • Still at experimental stage therefore not 100% safe. • Superficial reasons (appearance) • Moral and ethical issues
Illegal. . For now ‘Rapid progress in genetics is ‘British scientists have been granted making "designer babies" more permission to genetically modify likely and society needs to be human embryos by the fertility prepared, leading scientists have regulator. ’ The Telegraph Feb 2016. told the BBC’. BBC Jan 2015. ‘British scientists have been granted permission to genetically modify human embryos by the fertility regulator. ’ The Telegraph Feb 2016. ‘Couple to have Britain's first designer baby’
Agree or Disagree • Read the upcoming statements and show whether you agree or disagree by holding up the green (agree) or red (disagree) page from your planner. • Have a reason for your decision as I will be picking people at random THERE ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS
By choosing the partner you produce a child with, you are already beginning to select what characteristics your child will have. So how is designer babies any different?
People would ‘design’ babies for selfish reasons instead of to prevent disease or suffering.
This technology could avoid the suffering of children with inherited conditions.
Using these new technologies we can all live longer, better and healthier lives.
There could be prejudice and discrimination against ‘non - designed’ babies.
Everyone should have access to designer baby technology, regardless of cost, age or where they live
This could lead to a future inbalance between the sexes
Not every genetic illness is a prison sentence.
If it was my child I would want them to have the best start in life and so would do whatever was necessary.
In a world already becoming ‘looks’ obsessed, this technology will create a greater desire to become ‘perfect’
Task • Read through the 2 case studies and decide whether you agree or disagree. • Write your answers in your jotter with reasons to back up your decisions
Case study 1 Helen wants a child. She isn't aiming to create a perfect child but she wants to undergo genetic selection treatment. Helen has a problem with her DNA. It doesn’t affect her health, but it means that most of her eggs don't carry all the genes needed for a baby to grow healthily. The result is that each time she becomes pregnant, she miscarries. Doctors suggest that Helen try a technique called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Using PGD scientists can screen embryos outside the womb, long before they develop into babies. They can select just those embryos that carry healthy genes. This ensures the baby is free from genetic abnormalities. Genetic technology seems the only way she can have a baby at all. If Helen has a child this way, it's not really a designer baby at all. The embryo will be created from one of Helen's eggs and her husband's sperm, just as in IVF. The genes will not be altered, or enhanced in any way. The doctors simply choose an embryo that doesn't carry Helen's genetic disorder.
Case study 2 Phil and Sian have four daughters, but they wish to have a fifth child and would really like to have a son. To ensure their next child is a boy they wish to undergo genetic selection treatment. Doctors can now check using PGD whether an embryo produced by IVF is a boy or a girl depending on whether it contains an XX or XY pair of chromosomes and then implant the chosen embryo into Sian. There is no medical reason for the couple to have a male child but they both strongly believe a boy is needed to complete their family and to carry on their family name.
Anonymous • On the paper provided, write down your opinion of IVF and designer babies with reasons why you have come to that opinion • Do not put your name on the paper • Fold your paper and put it in the box