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Lesson on Making Inferences, Drawing Conclusions, Making Predictions Competency Goal 2. 01
Making Inferences: o Making inferences involves making educated guesses (like making a hypothesis in science) n n Supported inferences: are based directly on evidence from a passage. Unsupported inferences: are conclusions that are not logical—this happens when we ignore facts from a passage, OR we misunderstand/misinterpret them.
Drawing Conclusions o Being able to draw a conclusion depends upon your ability to make inferences. n Conclusions are made ONLY when you have pieced together the small guesses that you made along the way (inferences).
Making Predictions: o As you read a story, get into the habit of guessing about what will happen next. n Making predictions, just like inferencing, involves looking for clues that the writer gives.
Read the following passage in which the topic is not stated, but must be inferred by the reader. Identify clues that help us draw an inference. “Now that you’ve built up your arm and leg strength, you are ready to go. Before you begin, you need to remember that the sport requires more than a board and water. First, you need a great deal of balance. The waves are always changing and moving. The rider’s feet must be positioned and repositioned on the board to avoid falling. Second, you need good vision. It is important to observe how your wave is changing and make adjustments. ”
What was the topic of the previous passage? o Diving o Skiing o Surfing o Swimming
Did you notice these Clues? Now that you’ve built up your arm and leg strength, you are ready to go. Before you begin, you need to remember that the sport requires more than a board and water. First, you need a great deal of balance. The waves are always changing and moving. The rider’s feet must be positioned and repositioned on the board to avoid falling. Second, you need good vision. It is important to observe how your wave is changing and make adjustments. ”
What other inferences could we make about surfing from that passage? o It’s easy? o It’s difficult? o It’s fun? o It’s boring?
Drawing conclusions is a common type of inferencing skill. When you draw a conclusion, you form a judgement or opinion based on details in the passage as well as your personal knowledge and experience. o What conclusion can you draw from the following passage? n “Maria has studied all week for her algebra test. She spent three hours every night working on the review exercises in her textbook. Last night, she could not sleep very well because she was afraid she would sleep through her alarm. ”
What’s the most logical conclusion? A. Maria will pass her test. B. Maria is nervous about her algebra test. C. Maria gets nervous before big tests. D. Maria enjoys taking tests.
Explanation: A? not a conclusion but a prediction B? logical conclusion—we know that she’s nervous because of her actions. C? not a conclusion, but a generalization— we only know how she reacts to algebra tests, not all tests D? not a conclusion—passage says nothing about Maria enjoying test.
Practice: “Want Ad” Cheerful person to work at Medical City Dallas Hospital. Some experience selling helpful but not necessary. You will help brighten our patients’ days. Uniform provided. Apply at Flower Power, 7777 Forest Lane, Dallas, TX. The person who takes this job will probably work as a: A. Nurse B. receptionist C. salesperson D. Custodian
“Sleeping” Some people think they don’t move at all while they sleep. They believe they go to bed and never change position. Not true. Studies show that everybody makes at least eight to twelve major posture shifts a night. Insomniacs may double or triple that. What is a valid conclusion? A. Insomniacs shift positions less often than regular sleepers. B. Insomniacs shift positions more often than regular sleepers. C. Insomniacs shift positions as much as regular sleepers. D. Insomniacs do not shift positions at all.
Two dogs were kept in the fenced yard of the red brick house. They were locked in because they liked to run away. They were friendly dogs, but they barked a lot. When Susan walked by the house every day on the way to school, she heard the dogs barking. Even though the dogs were locked in, she always walked on the other side of the street. What detail would support the conclusion that Susan was afraid of dogs? A. They were locked in because they liked to run away. B. They were friendly dogs, but they barked a lot. C. Two dogs were kept in the fenced yard of the red brick house. D. Even though the dogs were locked in, she always walked on the other side of the street.
Fran was a born worrier. She worried about everything. When she went on a trip, she worried that she might forget her ticket or that the train might be late and she wouldn’t get to her destination on time. When she drove, she worried that traffic would be terrible. When she went on vacation, she worried that she would arrive at a hotel and somehow her reservation would be mixed up and she wouldn’t have a room. Fran had a new job. What do you suppose she thought about the day before she started? A. Whether she would do well at her job B. Whether to go food shopping C. Whether to have dinner at a restaurant D. Whether she should bring an umbrella