- Slides: 10
Lesson 6: The Two Covenants
The Two Covenants I. The Bible Is Divided into Two Covenants. A. A covenant is an agreement between two parties. B. In the Bible, God established covenants. C. The Bible contains two main covenants (or testaments) that God made: an old covenant and a new covenant. 1. The Old Covenant was made between God and a nation (Israel). 2. The New Covenant was/is made between God and individuals (Christians). D. A major key to Bible study is understanding and applying the proper distinction between “The Old Testament” and “The New Testament. ”
The Two Covenants II. God Established the First Covenant. A. The first covenant was made by God with the Israelites. B. The first covenant was made by God with the Israelites when they came out of Egypt. C. The first covenant was made by God with the Israelites at Mt. Sinai. D. The first covenant was made by God with the Israelites and only with the Israelites. 1. It was a national law, which did not include any other nation but the Jews.
The Two Covenants III. God Intended the First Covenant to Be Temporary. A. As a national law and covenant, limited only to the Jews, it should have been obvious that it was only temporary. B. God foretold through Jeremiah that He would establish a new covenant. C. More than 1, 000 years before Jeremiah, God had foretold of Judah’s role in His plan. D. God’s original design for the first covenant was for it to be temporary, “till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made” (Gal. 3: 19), and that Seed is “Christ” (Gal. 3: 16). E. When a covenant has fulfilled its purpose, it is “ready to disappear” (Heb. 8: 13, NASB).
The Two Covenants IV. God Intentionally Limited the Power and Effectuality of the First Covenant. A. God affirmed that “it was weak through the flesh” (Rom. 8: 3), and that it was annulled “because of its weakness” (Heb. 7: 18) and because it was not “faultless” (Heb. 8: 7). B. It was intentionally limited/weak/faulty in that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It was made with only one nation. It could not remove sin. It could not justify, give righteousness or give life. It could not make one perfect. It required perfect obedience, but no one could keep the law perfectly. C. If the first had been perfect, then there would have been no need for the second or for the Savior, Redeemer and Sacrificial Lamb of the second (Heb. 8: 7). D. God knew what He was doing!
The Two Covenants V. God Removed the First Covenant Himself, in Order to Establish the Second. A. God promised that He was going to make a new covenant (Jer. 31: 31 -34). B. The old covenant was intended to last “till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made” (Gal. 3: 19), and that Seed “is Christ” (Gal. 3: 16). C. Jesus declared that He came to “fulfill” the covenant that God made with Israel, and that it would “pass” when “all [the law] is fulfilled” (Matt. 5: 17 -18). D. The N. T. makes it clear that the first covenant was “taken away in Christ” (2 Cor. 3: 14).
The Two Covenants V. God Removed the First Covenant Himself, in Order to Establish the Second. E. The removal of the covenant took place in the death of Christ on the cross. F. The stated purpose (Gal. 3: 19) of the law was “to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith” (Gal. 3: 24) G. The removal of the covenant included the Ten Commandments. H. The laws of the Mosaic Covenant stand or fall together.
The Two Covenants VI. God Established the Second Covenant. A. At the same moment the first was removed (in the death of Christ on the cross, Eph. 2), God’s second covenant came in force. B. The first had to be removed for the second to be established. C. The Bible pinpoints the “beginning” of the New Testament law by using that very word.
The Two Covenants VI. God Established the Second Covenant. D. The second covenant, the New Testament: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Is the fulfillment of the promise made to Abraham. Is for all people. Is effected by the blood of Jesus. Completely removes sin. Sanctifies and justifies. Gives life and makes perfect. Places the faithful in a spiritual condition where “there is no condemnation. ” 8. Provides the fullness of God’s grace and truth. 9. Is founded upon and sustained by a living Mediator. 10. Promises eternal life. 11. Is to last until the end of time.
The Two Covenants VII. While Christians Are Not Under the Old Covenant, It Still Has Great Value to Us. A. The Old Testament is no longer binding today, but that does not mean it is worthless. B. Jesus and the New Testament writers must have seen its value, for they all used it. C. We have the Old Testament “for our learning” and “admonition” (Rom. 15: 4; 1 Cor. 10: 11). D. Much of the New Testament is better understood with a knowledge of the Old Testament. E. It has been said, “The Old Testament is the New Testament concealed, and the New Testament is the Old Testament revealed. ”