Lesson #1: The Cold War Begins Unit 10: The Cold War
Truman’s Presidency Post War World II: Part I Presidency from April 12, 1945 to January 20, 1953 United Nations was created by 50 nations meeting to establish the charter. The goal was “world peace” and man believed it was attainable following World War II
Allies Crash The United States and Soviets had different ambitions United States • Democracy and free enterprise economy Soviet Union • Communism = state controlled all property and economic activity
Tension Mount United States’ Response Containment Policy to take any measure to prevent the spread of communism to other countries Europe Becomes divided into TWO political regions Western = Democratic Eastern = Communist
Truman Doctrine Stated the United States should support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
Europe After the War Chaotic and created a struggling environment for many to live in Marshall Plan giving aid to many Western European countries making communism not so appealing
Stalin take hold of West Berlin He closes all highways and railways into the city Cuts off all food and fuel The city could only survive for FIVE weeks
Berlin Airlift American and British officials flew food and supplies into Western Berlin
Berlin Airlift For 327 days planes land every few minutes 2. 3 million tons of supplies are delivered Berlin survive because of the air lift
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United States and Canada Pledged military support to one another in case any member was attacked First time in United States history that we entered a military alliance in a time of peace
The Cold War had ended any chance the United States could go back to isolationism
Truman’s Presidency Post War World II: Part II Korean War 1950: North Korea was controlled by the Soviets and South Korea its own country
North Korea invades and South Korea calls on the United Nations UN votes to aid South Korea Truman sends troops to Japan and even a fleet to Taiwan and China His way of showing off American power
Back and forth at the 38 th Parallel Soviet suggest cease fire War ends in a stalemate Increased fear of communism aggression
Truman’s Presidency Post War World II: Part III Americans become terrified of communism Blacklist A list of people the t had condemned for having a communist back ground 500 people: actors, writers, producers and directors = many careers were ruined
Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy was the most famous anti. Communist activist Mc. Carthyism Attacking suspected
Eisenhower’s Presidency: Part I Brinkmanship Eisenhower’s willingness to go to the edge of all-out war The Army and Navy numbers decreased but the Air Force numbers increased The number of US nuclear weapons increased as well = The Soviet Union to follow
H-Bomb Hydrogen bomb More destructive than the atomic bomb
Who could come up with the H-Bomb first? United States Russia Lake in Russia made by a test dropping of a H-Bomb
Arms Race United States enjoyed a nuclear monopoly following World War II 1952 1953 USA develops H-Bomb Soviet Union develops H-Bomb
Each side built more and deadlier weapons American citizens began to ask questions and the government found itself trying to assure them
As the nation shifted to a dependence on nuclear arms, the Eisenhower administration began to rely on the recently formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Eisenhower’s Presidency: Part II Warsaw Pact The Soviet Union grew fearful when West Germany was allowed to rearm and joined NATO They created the Warsaw Pact which linked the Soviet Union with 7 Eastern European countries
The Soviet Union’s present grew in the Middle East Eisenhower stepped in: Eisenhower Doctrine The US would defend the Middle East against an attack by any communist
Eisenhower’s Presidency: Part III As a result of the Arms Race thousands of Americans build fallout shelters
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Duck and Cover Discussion Questions
Duck and Cover Questions 1 In the film, the narrator says that the atomic bomb is “very dangerous”, and equates it with other dangers children face. What dangers are listed? Why do you think the producers of the film chose to do this?
Duck and Cover Question 2 How does the narrator describe what happens in an atomic explosion? How does the narrator describe what might happen to children in an explosion? How does the narrator describe “duck and cover”?
Duck and Cover Questions 3 What two different types of nuclear attacks does the narrator state might happen? Which one does the narrator claim probably will happen? Why do you think the producers of the film claimed this?
Duck and Cover Questions 4 In your view, did Civil Defense and the producers of this film really believe the “facts” presented in this film, or did they believe the film would serve as propaganda to ease the minds of children or parents who were concerned that war between the U. S. and USSR was inevitable?
Duck and Cover Questions 5 Was the Cold War actually heighted because of Civil Defense films that made a nuclear conflict appear “winnable”?
Homework Blog Post #7