Lektion 4 Tidigare r lektion 9 Adresseringstekniker Kapitel

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Lektion 4 (Tidigare år lektion 9) Adresseringstekniker Kapitel 19: Internetworking, addressing and Routing. Kapitel

Lektion 4 (Tidigare år lektion 9) Adresseringstekniker Kapitel 19: Internetworking, addressing and Routing. Kapitel 20: Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPv 4, ICMP, IPv 6 and ICMPv 6.

Repetition: Fysisk adress och nätverksadress I figur 2. 11 vill vi sända data från

Repetition: Fysisk adress och nätverksadress I figur 2. 11 vill vi sända data från en nod med logisk nätverksadress (IP-adress) A och fysisk adress 10 till en nod med IP-adress P och fysisk adress 95. De två enheterna befinner sig i olika LAN. Därför kan vi inte enbart använda deras fysiska adress. Den fysiska adressen kan enbart användas vid kommunikation inom ett LAN. De två routrarna förstår av IPadressen vilken väg paketen ska vidareförmedlas, och ändrar paketets fysiska adressering.

Adresser till min dator • • • Fysisk MAC-adress, 48 bitar: 00 -00 -E

Adresser till min dator • • • Fysisk MAC-adress, 48 bitar: 00 -00 -E 2 -4 F-54 -04 IP-adress, 32 bitar: 193. 10. 250. 187. Intern NAT-IP-adress (Network Address Translation): 10. 14. 1. 63. IP-subnetmask: 255. 0. 0 DNS-namn (Domain namn Service): mageripc. itm. miun. se, där itm. miun. se är DNS-suffix, och. se är toppdomän. • URL till webbsida på webbserver på min dator: http: //mageripc. itm. miun. se: portnummer/filkatalog/filnamn. typ Portnumret är default 80. Många datorer i världen har DNS-alias ”www”. • URL till ftp-fil på min dator: ftp: //användanamn: lö[email protected] itm. miun. se/filkatalog/filnamn. typ • Filnamn till fil vid delad diskaccess till min dator: \mageripc. itm. miun. sefilkatalogfilnamn. typ (Av säkerhetsskäl inte tillgänglig utanför nätet. ) • E-postadress till användare på en e-postserver på min dator: anvä[email protected] itm. miun. se

System och protokoll för översättning mellan olika adresseringstekniker • ARP (Address resolution protocol) översätter

System och protokoll för översättning mellan olika adresseringstekniker • ARP (Address resolution protocol) översätter IP-adress till fysisk adress. • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) kan ge varje dator en ledig IP-adress, och talar om för en dator med en viss fysisk adress vilken dess IP-adress är vid varje omstart. • DNS (Domain Name Server) är ett system av databaser som översätter mellan IP-adress och DNS-adress. • NAT (Network Address Translation) är en server, ofta i anslutning till företagets brandvägg, som modifierar IP-paketen genom att byta ut intern avsändar-IP-adress och portnummer till extern IP-adress + portnummer vid utgående paket, och vice versa vid inkommande. På så sätt kan många dela på samma externa IP-adress.

PART IV Network Layer

PART IV Network Layer

Position of network layer

Position of network layer

Network layer duties

Network layer duties

Chapter 19 Host-to-Host Delivery: Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing

Chapter 19 Host-to-Host Delivery: Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing

Figure 19. 1 Internetwork

Figure 19. 1 Internetwork

Figure 19. 3 Network layer in an internetwork

Figure 19. 3 Network layer in an internetwork

Figure 19. 7 Switching

Figure 19. 7 Switching

Figure 19. 8 Datagram approach

Figure 19. 8 Datagram approach

Note: Switching at the network layer in the Internet is done using the datagram

Note: Switching at the network layer in the Internet is done using the datagram approach to packet switching.

Note: Communication at the network layer in the Internet is connectionless.

Note: Communication at the network layer in the Internet is connectionless.

Figure 19. 9 Dotted-decimal notation

Figure 19. 9 Dotted-decimal notation

IP-adresser • 32 -bit adress i dagens IP version 4. 64 -bit i IPversion

IP-adresser • 32 -bit adress i dagens IP version 4. 64 -bit i IPversion 6. • Exempelvis har Utbildningsradions www-server IPadressen 1100 0001 0000 1100 0101 1011 0001 1111 binärt. • På punkterad decimalform blir det 193. 12. 91. 31. • Hexadecimalt blir det C 10 C 5 B 1 F.

Note: The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.

Note: The binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems are reviewed in Appendix B.

Example 1 Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotteddecimal notation. a.

Example 1 Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotteddecimal notation. a. 10000001011 11101111 b. 111110011011 11111011 00001111 Solution We replace each group of 8 bits with its equivalent decimal number (see Appendix B) and add dots for separation: a. 129. 11. 239 b. 249. 155. 251. 15

Example 2 Change the following IP addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation. a.

Example 2 Change the following IP addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation. a. 111. 56. 45. 78 b. 75. 45. 34. 78 Solution We replace each decimal number with its binary equivalent (see Appendix B): a. b. 01101111 00111000 00101101 01001110 0100101101 0010 01001110

Hierarchical Addressing • Network address – A part used by the router • Host

Hierarchical Addressing • Network address – A part used by the router • Host address – Specific part or device on the network node 3. 1 2. 1 A 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 An example of hierarchical addressing Each node is actually an interface to the network 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1

Note: In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A, B,

Note: In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E.

Figure 9. 5 IP address formats and classes

Figure 9. 5 IP address formats and classes

Figure 19. 10 Finding the class in binary notation

Figure 19. 10 Finding the class in binary notation

Figure 19. 11 Finding the address class

Figure 19. 11 Finding the address class

Example 3 Find the class of each address: a. 00000001011 11101111 b. 11110011011 11111011

Example 3 Find the class of each address: a. 00000001011 11101111 b. 11110011011 11111011 00001111 Solution See the procedure in Figure 19. 11. a. b. The first bit is 0; this is a class A address. The first 4 bits are 1 s; this is a class E address.

Figure 19. 12 Finding the class in decimal notation

Figure 19. 12 Finding the class in decimal notation

Example 4 Find the class of each address: a. 227. 12. 14. 87 b.

Example 4 Find the class of each address: a. 227. 12. 14. 87 b. 252. 5. 111 c. 134. 11. 78. 56 Solution a. b. c. The first byte is 227 (between 224 and 239); the class is D. The first byte is 252 (between 240 and 255); the class is E. The first byte is 134 (between 128 and 191); the class is B.

Figure 19. 13 Netid and hostid

Figure 19. 13 Netid and hostid

Figure 19. 14 Blocks in class A

Figure 19. 14 Blocks in class A

Figure 19. 15 Blocks in class B

Figure 19. 15 Blocks in class B

Figure 19. 16 Blocks in class C

Figure 19. 16 Blocks in class C

Note: A network address is different from a netid. A network address has both

Note: A network address is different from a netid. A network address has both netid and hostid, with 0 s for the hostid.

Figure 19. 17 Network address

Figure 19. 17 Network address

Example 5 Given the address 23. 56. 7. 91, find the network address. Solution

Example 5 Given the address 23. 56. 7. 91, find the network address. Solution The class is A. Only the first byte defines the netid. We can find the network address by replacing the hostid bytes (56. 7. 91) with 0 s. Therefore, the network address is 23. 0. 0. 0.

Example 6 Given the address 132. 6. 17. 85, find the network address. Solution

Example 6 Given the address 132. 6. 17. 85, find the network address. Solution The class is B. The first 2 bytes defines the netid. We can find the network address by replacing the hostid bytes (17. 85) with 0 s. Therefore, the network address is 132. 6. 0. 0.

Example 7 Given the network address 17. 0. 0. 0, find the class. Solution

Example 7 Given the network address 17. 0. 0. 0, find the class. Solution The class is A because the netid is only 1 byte.

Klasslösa adresser • Idag används subnetting och klasslösa adresser med hjälp av IP-masker. En

Klasslösa adresser • Idag används subnetting och klasslösa adresser med hjälp av IP-masker. En 1: a i IP-masken betyder att motsvarande bit i adressen tillhör Net-ID. • Exempel: IP-masken 255. 0. 0 = FFFF 0000 (sexton 1: or och sexton 0: or) betyder att de första 16 bitarna i IPadressen är Net-ID, övriga är Host-ID.

Figure 19. 21 Addresses in a network with and without subnetting

Figure 19. 21 Addresses in a network with and without subnetting

Table 19. 1 Default masks Class In Binary In Dotted-Decimal Using Slash notation A

Table 19. 1 Default masks Class In Binary In Dotted-Decimal Using Slash notation A 1111 00000000 255. 0. 0. 0 /8 B 11111111 00000000 255. 0. 0 /16 C 111111111 0000 255. 0 /24

Note: The network address can be found by applying the default mask to any

Note: The network address can be found by applying the default mask to any address in the block (including itself). It retains the netid of the block and sets the hostid to 0 s.

Example 8 A router outside the organization receives a packet with destination address 190.

Example 8 A router outside the organization receives a packet with destination address 190. 240. 7. 91. Show it finds the network address to route the packet. Solution The router follows three steps: 1. The router looks at the first byte of the address to find the class. It is class B. 2. The default mask for class B is 255. 0. 0. The router ANDs this mask with the address to get 190. 240. 0. 0. 3. The router looks in its routing table to find out how to route the packet to this destination. Later, we will see what happens if this destination does not exist.

Figure 19. 23 Subnet mask

Figure 19. 23 Subnet mask

Example 9 A router inside the organization receives the same packet with destination address

Example 9 A router inside the organization receives the same packet with destination address 190. 240. 33. 91. Show it finds the subnetwork address to route the packet. Solution The router follows three steps: 1. The router must know the mask. We assume it is /19, as shown in Figure 19. 23. 2. The router applies the mask to the address, 190. 240. 33. 91. The subnet address is 190. 240. 32. 0. 3. The router looks in its routing table to find how to route the packet to this destination. Later, we will see what happens if this destination does not exist.

Broadcast IP address • Broadcast IP address is used when information needs to be

Broadcast IP address • Broadcast IP address is used when information needs to be sent to all the hosts on the same network ○ Convenient in broadcast networks (such as Ethernet) • Broadcast IP address is obtained when host bits are replaced by 1 s.

Example: Network addresses 192. 16. 4. 0 172. 16. 4. 255192. 16. 4. 1

Example: Network addresses 192. 16. 4. 0 172. 16. 4. 255192. 16. 4. 1 192. 16. 4. 255 192. 16. 5. 0 172. 16. 5. 255 192. 16. 4. 3 192. 16. 5. 1 192. 16. 5. 2 192. 16. 3. 0 172. 16. 3. 255 192. 16. 3. 1 192. 16. 3. 2 192. 16. 3. 3 192. 16. 3. 4 192. 16. 3. 5 Broadcast addresses Host addresses The mask is 255. 0 for all hosts

Unicast, Multicast and Reserved Addresses • Unicast address is used for one-to-one communication •

Unicast, Multicast and Reserved Addresses • Unicast address is used for one-to-one communication • Multicast address is used for one-to-many communication (group communication) – D class • Reserved addresses – Besides the addresses in class E reserved addresses are: ○ ○ Network addresses – all host bits are 0 Broadcast addresses – all host bits are 1 All network part 0 – host on this network 127. 0. 0. 0 mask 255. 0. 0. 0 and all host addresses on this network are reserved for testing purposes. 127. 0. 0. 1 = localhost. ○ 0. 0 – default route

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • ARP is necessary whenever a device need to send

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • ARP is necessary whenever a device need to send an IP packet to another device on the same LAN ○ The two devices can be two hosts, or host and router, or two routers that are on the same network • ARP resolves the IP address into a physical address (MAC addresses).

Figure 20. 2 ARP operation

Figure 20. 2 ARP operation

Figure 20. 5 Four cases using ARP

Figure 20. 5 Four cases using ARP

Note: An ARP request is broadcast; an ARP reply is unicast.

Note: An ARP request is broadcast; an ARP reply is unicast.

How Does ARP Operate? • The sending machine issues a low level broadcast onto

How Does ARP Operate? • The sending machine issues a low level broadcast onto the network, requesting that the system that is using the specified IP address responds with its hardware address ( ARP request message) • All the systems on the network receive the request messge • Only the system that has the specified IP address responds. • The response is not broadcast over the network, but is instead sent directly to the requesting system (response message).

ARP Cache • The Ethernet and IP address pair, obtained from the response are

ARP Cache • The Ethernet and IP address pair, obtained from the response are stored (cashed) for further by both systems, the one sending the request and receiveing the response and the one recieving the rquest and sending the response • The next time, the system checks the local cache and if an entry is found, the need for a broadcast will be eliminated.

Example 1 A host with IP address 130. 23. 3. 20 and physical address

Example 1 A host with IP address 130. 23. 3. 20 and physical address B 23455102210 has a packet to send to another host with IP address 130. 23. 43. 25 and physical address A 46 EF 45983 AB. The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. Solution Figure 20. 6 shows the ARP request and reply packets. Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4 -byte boundary. That is why we do not show the regular 4 -byte boundaries for these addresses. Note that we use hexadecimal for every field except the IP addresses.

Figure 20. 6 Example 1

Figure 20. 6 Example 1

DHCP and NAT • DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ○ A protocol that

DHCP and NAT • DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ○ A protocol that makes possible the IP configuration parameters to the hosts to be assigned from a server. IP addresses are leased for a period of time. • Private addresses ○ Particular blocks of IP addresses are reserved as private address and can be used for private networks not connected to the Internet ○ When these networks connect to the Internet, they need NAT (network address translation) • NAT ○ NAT software translates private IP addresses into public and vice-versa

Table 19. 2 Default masks Range Total 10. 0 to 10. 255 224 172.

Table 19. 2 Default masks Range Total 10. 0 to 10. 255 224 172. 16. 0. 0 to 172. 31. 255 220 192. 168. 255 216 192. 168. 0. 0 to

Figure 19. 25 NAT

Figure 19. 25 NAT

Figure 19. 26 Address translation

Figure 19. 26 Address translation

Figure 19. 27 Translation

Figure 19. 27 Translation

Table 19. 3 Five-column translation table Private Address Private Port External Address External Port

Table 19. 3 Five-column translation table Private Address Private Port External Address External Port Transport Protocol 172. 18. 3. 1 1400 25. 8. 3. 2 80 TCP 172. 18. 3. 2 1401 25. 8. 3. 2 80 TCP . . . .

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • ICMP is IP helper protocol ○ Serves for

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • ICMP is IP helper protocol ○ Serves for error reports and for testing purposes • ICMP messages are encapsulated in IP packets. • ICMP provides a means for transferring control messages from routers and other hosts to a host. • ICMP provides feedback about problems such as: ○ an unreachable destination ○ buffer overflow ○ time-to-live expires

Useful Programs • These programs use ICMP to probe the Internet ○ ping •

Useful Programs • These programs use ICMP to probe the Internet ○ ping • Sends packets that is echoed by remote computer • Remote computer replies with echo packet • Local computer reports receipt of reply ○ traceroute • • Reports path to remote computer Sends packets to the destination starting with TTL=1 Each successive packet identifies next router along path Reports list of packets ○ ipconfig – shows network configuration info • Displays all configuration information

Ping - Example Four packets are sent. Each has different round-trip time (RTT). Minimum,

Ping - Example Four packets are sent. Each has different round-trip time (RTT). Minimum, Maximum and average are also given.

Round-trip Time (RTT) • Time for the packet to be sent and acknowledgement to

Round-trip Time (RTT) • Time for the packet to be sent and acknowledgement to come back to the sender • Why the packets have different RTT? ○ They might travel different paths ○ The load in some of the routers might be high. Therefore packet’s waiting time at the routers can be different. ○ Ping also shows the percentage of lost packets.

Traceroute - Example The source is sending three packets with TTL=1, then another three

Traceroute - Example The source is sending three packets with TTL=1, then another three with TTL=2 and so on until TTL is by one bigger then the number of hops. A response is thus obtained from each hop where the packets are dropped. RTT for each packet is presented.

Visual. Route • A program that displays visually (on a map) traceroute • Trial

Visual. Route • A program that displays visually (on a map) traceroute • Trial version can be obtained free from www. visualroute. com

Ipconfig • Displays all the information about the IP configuration. ○ ○ ○ ○

Ipconfig • Displays all the information about the IP configuration. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ IP address Subnet mask Default gateway (router) DNS servers DHCP servers MAC (physical) address Host name Domain suffix …

Ipconfig /all - Example

Ipconfig /all - Example

Figure 20. 15 IPv 6 address =MAC address

Figure 20. 15 IPv 6 address =MAC address

Figure 20. 23 Tunneling

Figure 20. 23 Tunneling

Figure 20. 24 Header translation

Figure 20. 24 Header translation