Lecture One Academic Style English Academic Writing for

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Lecture One Academic Style 理 学术英语写作 English Academic Writing for Science and Engineering

Lecture One Academic Style 理 学术英语写作 English Academic Writing for Science and Engineering

Contents 1 Lead-in Activity 2 Introduction to Academic Writing 3 Academic Style 4 5

Contents 1 Lead-in Activity 2 Introduction to Academic Writing 3 Academic Style 4 5 Review and Practice References 上海理 大学外语学院

Lead-in Read the following two texts, discuss with your partner about the differences between

Lead-in Read the following two texts, discuss with your partner about the differences between them. A lot of people think that the weather is getting worse. They say that this has been going on for quite a long time. I think that they are quite right. Research has shown that we now get storms etc. all the time. It is widely believed that the climate is deteriorating. It is claimed that this process has been continuing for nearly 100 years. This belief appears to be supported by Mc. Kinley (1997), who shows a 55% increase in the frequency of severe winter gales since 1905. 上海理 大学外语学院

Lead-in Which one looks more academic? A lot of people think that the weather

Lead-in Which one looks more academic? A lot of people think that the weather is getting worse. They say that this has been going on for quite a long time. I think that they are quite right. Research has shown that we now get storms etc. all the time. It is widely believed that the climate is deteriorating. It is claimed that this process has been continuing for nearly 100 years. This belief appears to be supported by Mc. Kinley (1997), who shows a 55% increase in the frequency of severe winter gales since 1905.

Lead-in Differences Between General English and Academic English General English A lot of people

Lead-in Differences Between General English and Academic English General English A lot of people think that the weather is getting worse. They say that this has been going on for quite a long time. I think that they are quite right. Research has shown that we now get storms etc. all the time. Academic English It is widely believed that the climate is deteriorating. It is claimed that this process has been continuing for nearly 100 years. This belief appears to be supported by Mc. Kinley (1997), who shows a 55% increase in the frequency of severe winter gales since 1905. 上海理 大学外语学院

Lead-in Discussion v What is academic writing like? v How does it differ from

Lead-in Discussion v What is academic writing like? v How does it differ from the types of writing you do in your everyday life? v What are the features of English academic writing? 上海理 大学外语学院

Introduction to Academic Writing v Definition of academic writing v Characteristics of academic writing

Introduction to Academic Writing v Definition of academic writing v Characteristics of academic writing v Purposes of academic writing v Process of academic writing

Introduction to Academic Writing Definition of Academic Writing a piece of lengthy documented writing

Introduction to Academic Writing Definition of Academic Writing a piece of lengthy documented writing that focuses upon an academic topic and it is intended to inform the audience in the relevant field. essay lab report research papers dissertation/thesis case study These are just some examples of documents written in the academic style.

Introduction to Academic Writing Characteristics of Academic Writing v Clear and limited focus. thesis

Introduction to Academic Writing Characteristics of Academic Writing v Clear and limited focus. thesis satatement v Logical structure. analysis and arguemnt v Evidence-based arguments. authority and credibility v Impersonal tone. objectivity and formality 上海理 大学

Introduction to Academic Writing Purposes of Academic Writing v To learn about the conventions

Introduction to Academic Writing Purposes of Academic Writing v To learn about the conventions of scholarly writing v To summarize or sythesize information or ideas gathered from research v To explain, compare and contrast, evaluate, or analyze concept, events, and phenomenon v To argue for or against a position in a ongoing debate

Introduction to Academic Writing Process • Choosing a topic • Collecting data • Working

Introduction to Academic Writing Process • Choosing a topic • Collecting data • Working out an outline Prewriting Writing • Introduction • Literature review • Body part • Conclusion • Reference • Abstract • Revising(content and organizaiton) • Editing(spelling, grammar, punctuation ) Afterwriting

Introduction to Academic Writing Features to Know Conventions to Follow Skills to Acquire •

Introduction to Academic Writing Features to Know Conventions to Follow Skills to Acquire • Features of academic writing • Features of academic English • Academic style in language • Academic style in organization • Format of introduciton, literature review, reference and abstract • Summarizing • Evaluating • Paraphrasing • Sythesizing • Defining • Thinking critically • Paragraphing • Referencing

Academic Style Ø Academic Vocabulary Ø Features of Academic English

Academic Style Ø Academic Vocabulary Ø Features of Academic English

Academic Vocabulary Ø Types of vocabulary in academic writing Ø Academic vocabulary learning

Academic Vocabulary Ø Types of vocabulary in academic writing Ø Academic vocabulary learning

Types of Words in Academic Writing ØHigh Frequency Words ØAcademic Words ØTechnical Words ØTask

Types of Words in Academic Writing ØHigh Frequency Words ØAcademic Words ØTechnical Words ØTask

Types of Words in Academic Writing High Frequency Words: also called general service vocabulary

Types of Words in Academic Writing High Frequency Words: also called general service vocabulary e. g. the, various, including, water, study Occur frequently in all uses of language, making up about 76% of all words in published academic writing.

Types of Words in Academic Writing Academic Words: sometimes referred to as subtechnical words.

Types of Words in Academic Writing Academic Words: sometimes referred to as subtechnical words. e. g. conceived, undergo, integrity, straightforward They are commonly used in academic texts, but much less commonly used in the general language.

Types of Words in Academic Writing Technical Words: occurs frequently in a single subject

Types of Words in Academic Writing Technical Words: occurs frequently in a single subject area such as accounting, nursing, or chemistry. In the case for engineering e. g. fuel, electrolysis, biomass, catalytic

Types of Words in Academic Writing v High-frequency and academic words are more important

Types of Words in Academic Writing v High-frequency and academic words are more important for students preparing for academic study since they appear in academic writing across a broad range of subject areas. v Technical words are associated with a specific area of study. They can be learnt through specific course subjects.

 Voacabulary Task Read the following text and find out different types of words

Voacabulary Task Read the following text and find out different types of words in the writing. Hydrogen fuel The hydrogen fuel used as fuel in a fuel cell can be derived from various sources including: 1. Electrolysis of water 2. Gasification of biomass 3. Catalytic cracking of crude oil fractions In this study, we will examine electrolysis of water as a means of generating hydrogen.

Academic Vocabulary Learning Equipping yourself with the relevant academic vocabulary will give you a

Academic Vocabulary Learning Equipping yourself with the relevant academic vocabulary will give you a head start in academic writing. The following ways will help you more effectively: Academic Words Lists The General Service List v http: //jbauman. com/aboutgsl. html The Academic Word List v http: //www. nottingham. ac. uk/alzsh 3/acvocab/wordli sts. htm Subject-related Word List v http: //www. uefap. com/vocab/select/selframs. htm

 Acadmemic Vocabulary Learning Use electronic corpora A corpus is a collection of texts

Acadmemic Vocabulary Learning Use electronic corpora A corpus is a collection of texts from which information can be collected about aspects of language use such as word occurrence and frequency, collocation, and lexical chunking e. g. British Academic Written English Corpus v http: //www. coventry. ac. uk/researchdirectories/current-projects/2015/british-academicwritten-english-corpus-bawe/

Features of Academic English 1 • Complexity 2 • Formality 3 • Objectivity 4

Features of Academic English 1 • Complexity 2 • Formality 3 • Objectivity 4 • Tentativeness

Feature 1: Complexity Use of long and complex words lexical Add affixes Lexial density

Feature 1: Complexity Use of long and complex words lexical Add affixes Lexial density comlexity Nominalisation grammatical Use long and complex sentences

Lexial Complexity 1) Use of long and complex words. Replace the words on the

Lexial Complexity 1) Use of long and complex words. Replace the words on the left with more comlex words a lot of; plenty of → considerable; numerous more and more → increasing, increasingly think → maintain, state, according to → therefore, consequently, hence, thus so

Lexical Complexity 2) Add affixes Adding Prefixes (like dislike, divide subdivide), Adding Suffixes (active

Lexical Complexity 2) Add affixes Adding Prefixes (like dislike, divide subdivide), Adding Suffixes (active activate, exemple exemplify) Note: The most common prefixes used to form new verbs in academic English are: re-, dis-, over-, un-, mis-, out. The most common suffixes are: -ise, -en, -ate, -(i)fy

Lexical Complexity 3) Lexial density If we define lexical density as the number of

Lexical Complexity 3) Lexial density If we define lexical density as the number of content words in a clause, then written English has a higher lexical density than spoken English (Halliday, 1996, p. 347). Compare: Ø Obviously the government is frightened how the unions will react if it tries to make them behave properly. Ø Obviously the government is frightened of union reaction to its move to impose proper behaviour on unions. ( more lexically dense)

Grammatical Complexity 4) Nominalisation use nouns and nominal group (noun-based phrases) more than verbs.

Grammatical Complexity 4) Nominalisation use nouns and nominal group (noun-based phrases) more than verbs. e. g. Like all other forms of life, we human beings are the product of how we have evolved. Ø Like all other forms of life, we human beings are the product of evolution.

Grammatical Complexity 5) Use long and complex sentences more nominal clauses, relative clauses, participles

Grammatical Complexity 5) Use long and complex sentences more nominal clauses, relative clauses, participles are used in academic writing. v There are several factors which help to prolong this period to perhaps three or four times than in the male. v The only really important biography was that of George V by Harold Nicolson, which had been published in 1952.

Exercises 1: Comlexity Re-write the following sentences in a more academic style. 1. The

Exercises 1: Comlexity Re-write the following sentences in a more academic style. 1. The cities in Switzerland had once been peaceful, but they changed when people became violent. Ø Violence changed the face of once peaceful Swiss cities. 2. They have many exercises to fill in the missing words available to learn from. Ø The availability of gap filling exercises enhances learning.

Feature 2: Formality 1) Use full forms All contracted forms need to be in

Feature 2: Formality 1) Use full forms All contracted forms need to be in full forms e. g. it’ll→it will don’t →do not there’s→there is note : can’t→cannot (one word, not two).

Feature 2: Formality 2) Use single-word verbs phrasal verbs which are generally considered more

Feature 2: Formality 2) Use single-word verbs phrasal verbs which are generally considered more colloquial and informal. e. g. Scientists are looking into the production of biofuels using non-food crops. (informal) Scientists are investigating the production of biofuels using non-food crops. (formal)

Feature 2: Formality 3) Use specific words Avoid common but vague words and phrases

Feature 2: Formality 3) Use specific words Avoid common but vague words and phrases such as “get”, “nice ”, “thing”, your writing needs to be more precise. Avoid vague and general phrases Be more formal and more specific Doris Lessing got the Nobel Prize in Doris Lessing was awarded the Nobel 2007. Prize in 2007. Chemical cycling is pretty important in an ecosystem. There are many things that make this happen … Chemical cycling plays a significant role in the success of an ecosystem. There are four factors that contribute to … Firstly, …

Feature 2: Formality 4) Use standard or formal words and expressions Avoid informal or

Feature 2: Formality 4) Use standard or formal words and expressions Avoid informal or nonstandard words and expressions such as colloquialism, slang, and taboo words and expressions. e. g. Informal words stop v. → next adv. → lack n. → friendly adj. → formal words cease subsequently deficiency amiable

Feature 2: Formality 5) Avoid Colloquialism/ Idioms v Colloquialism: “etc. ” or “so on”

Feature 2: Formality 5) Avoid Colloquialism/ Idioms v Colloquialism: “etc. ” or “so on” v Idioms : “every coin has two sides. . . ” / “on the other hand. . . ”

Exercise 2: Formality Identify the informal expressions in the following sentences, and replace the

Exercise 2: Formality Identify the informal expressions in the following sentences, and replace the informal expression with a more formal equivalent. 1. These aren’t at all original or exotic but are based on the ordinary things that most people tend to eat. 2. Simply making the effort to reclaim this wasted stuff for fertilizer would have a positive effect on greenhouse releases. 3. Discussion of the outcome of experiments that have used this method will be put off until Chapter 7.

Exercise 2: Formality Identify the informal expressions in the following sentences, and replace the

Exercise 2: Formality Identify the informal expressions in the following sentences, and replace the informal expression with a more formal equivalent. 1. These aren’t at all original or exotic but are based on the ordinary things that most people tend to eat. 2. Simply making the effort to reclaim this wasted stuff for fertilizer would have a positive effect on greenhouse releases. 3. Discussion of the outcome of experiments that have used this method will be put off until Chapter 7.

Feature 3: Objectivity 1) Avoid the first person pronoun “I” and the second person

Feature 3: Objectivity 1) Avoid the first person pronoun “I” and the second person pronoun “you”. If the first person pronoun cannot be avoided, use “we” instead of “I”, or use third person reference, like “the writer”, “the present author”, or “this author”.

Feature 3: Objectivity 2) Use impersonal constructions when expressing an opinion or belief. Subjective

Feature 3: Objectivity 2) Use impersonal constructions when expressing an opinion or belief. Subjective form Objective form In this essay, I will discuss … This essay discusses … you can see… it can be seen that My approach to this was to … One method considered was … In my research I found that … The research showed that…

Feature 3: Objectivity 3) Use passive constructions Passive construction helps to make your writing

Feature 3: Objectivity 3) Use passive constructions Passive construction helps to make your writing less personal. e. g. They can learn English effectively. . . Ø English can be learnt effectively. . . They analysed the data and they discovered… Ø The data was analysed. .

Exercise 3: Objectivity Rewrite the following sentences in a more academic style. 1. In

Exercise 3: Objectivity Rewrite the following sentences in a more academic style. 1. In my opinion, this a very interesting study. Ø This is a very interesting study. 2. You can easily forget how different life was 50 years ago. Ø It is easy to forget how difficult life was 50 years ago. 3. Everyone thought that the Government had shown little regard for public opinion. Ø It was thought that the Government had shown little regard for public opinion. Ø The Government was thought to have shown little regard for public opinion.

Feature 4: Tentativeness An important feature of academic writing is the concept of cautious

Feature 4: Tentativeness An important feature of academic writing is the concept of cautious language, often called “hedging”. In other words, it is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making to avoid being too dogmatic. Use words or phrases such as: • suggests that • there is a tendency for • it would seem that • probable • the majority of

Feature 4: Tentativeness 1) Use affirmative structures only when there is complete certainty. e.

Feature 4: Tentativeness 1) Use affirmative structures only when there is complete certainty. e. g. It is true that… It has been proved that… 2) Use tentative structures if there is no complete certainty. Modal verbs, adverbs, and other expressions often help to achieve this purpose. Compare the following two sentences: There are cases where this would have been the only possible method of transmission. There are certainly cases where this would seem to have been the only possible method of transmission.

Exercise 4: Tentativeness Rewrite these sentences by using hedging language. 1. Playing violent video

Exercise 4: Tentativeness Rewrite these sentences by using hedging language. 1. Playing violent video games causes more aggression, bullying, and fighting. 2. Mars is the focus of much scientific study and the foremost planet for human colonization. 3. News reports can never be trusted because of media bias, journalist interpretation and agenda setting. 4. Most people think that Climate Change is caused by human activities.

Exercise 4: Tentativeness 1. It is assumed that playing violent video games may cause

Exercise 4: Tentativeness 1. It is assumed that playing violent video games may cause more aggression, bullying, and fighting. 2. Mars is certainly the focus of much scientific study and often considered the foremost planet for human colonization. 3. It could be the case that certain news reports can never be trusted because of the possibility of media bias, journalist interpretation and agenda setting. 4. It is generally believed that Climate Change is caused by human activities.

Review and Practice Review Ø Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Ø Sample in

Review and Practice Review Ø Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Ø Sample in Lead-in Practice Ø Practice 1 and Instruction on It Ø Practice 2 and Reference Answer

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Do not write

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Do not write I think - especially not at the Leave out I think, e. g. James beginning of a sentence, i. e. do not write, (2008) believes that global warming for example, I think James (2008) will… believes that global warming will… Do not use personal pronouns e. g. I, Be non-personal, e. g. It should be you, we (unless specifically required), i. e. possible for everyone to compete. do not write We think that you should be able to compete. Do not pose (direct) questions in the running text, that is, do not write, for instance Can carbon emissions be reduced? Convert questions into statements, for example, The possibility of carbon emissions being reduced is questionable.

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Do not write

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Do not write I think - especially not at the beginning of a sentence, i. e. do not write, for example, I think James (2008) believes that global warming will… Leave out I think, e. g. James (2008) believes that global warming will… Do not use personal pronouns e. g. I, you, we (unless specifically required), i. e. do not write We think that you should be able to compete. Be non-personal, e. g. It should be possible for everyone to compete. Do not pose (direct) questions in the running text, that is, do not write, for instance Can carbon emissions be reduced? Convert questions into statements, for example, The possibility of carbon emissions being reduced is questionable.

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Dos Avoid using

Review and Practice Review: Dos and Don’ts in Academic Writing Don’ts Dos Avoid using run-on expressions including phrases such as “and so forth”, “and so on” or “etc. ”. Try to complete the sentence properly; do not use these if you can avoid them. Do not use bullet points or lists, unless it Use complete sentences and link is in a report. these into logical paragraphs. Avoid making assumptions or giving your opinion (unless specifically asked). Be objective. Do not mix words and numbers unsystematically. Use words for numbers nine and below and numbers for 10 and above.

Review and Practice Review: Sample Why is A non academic? A lot of people

Review and Practice Review: Sample Why is A non academic? A lot of people think that the weather is getting worse. lvague claim not supported with evidence, informal language They say that this has been going on for quite a long time. l too personal, avoid colloqualism, vague time I think that they are quite right. Research has shown that we now get storms etc all the time. ltoo personalavoid using “etc. ” and “and so on” Why is B academic? It is widely believed that the climate is deteriorating. Emphasis is on fact, formal language It is claimed that this process has been continuing for nearly 100 years. more precise, formal This belief appears to be supported by Mc. Kinley (1997), tentative, know source of evidence who shows a 55% increase in the frequency of severe winter gales since 1905. more precise, comlex and formal, data supported 上海理 大学

Review and Practice 1 Rewrite the following sentence in a more academic style. Another

Review and Practice 1 Rewrite the following sentence in a more academic style. Another thing to think about is the chance of crime getting worse.

Review and Practice Instruction on Practice 1 Step 1 underline informal words / non-academic

Review and Practice Instruction on Practice 1 Step 1 underline informal words / non-academic style: Another thing to think about is the chance of crime getting worse. Step 2 Use synonyms for informal words thing = area / aspect / feature / point think about = consider / note / understand / acknowledge chance = possibility / probability / situation / getting worse= deteriorating Step 3 Rewrite the sentence Another aspect to consider is the possibility of crime deteriorating.

Review and Practice 2 Rewrite the following paragraphs in a more academic style. Why

Review and Practice 2 Rewrite the following paragraphs in a more academic style. Why are there so many jams on the roads these days? One thing is that public transport like trains, buses etc. is so dear. A long time ago cars cost a lot but now, unfortunately, they’ve got a lot cheaper. Another thing is that driving is a lot nicer than waiting for a bus. The trouble is that if everyone buys a car the roads get packed.

Review and Practice Reference Answer for Practice 2 v Why are there so many

Review and Practice Reference Answer for Practice 2 v Why are there so many jams on the roads these days? One thing is that public transport like trains, buses etc is so dear. A long time ago cars cost a lot but now, unfortunately, they’ve got a lot cheaper. Another thing is that driving is a lot nicer than waiting for a bus. The trouble is that if everyone buys a car the roads get packed. Ø There appear to be two principal reasons for the growing traffic congestion. Firstly, public transport has become increasingly expensive relative to the falling cost of motoring. In addition, car ownership is much more convenient than using public transport. Together, these factors result in higher vehicle density.

References 1) 刘芹主�. 理 英��写教程. 上海: 上海外�教育出版社 , 2014. 2) Carolyn, B. Norris. Ph.

References 1) 刘芹主�. 理 英��写教程. 上海: 上海外�教育出版社 , 2014. 2) Carolyn, B. Norris. Ph. D. Academic Writing in English. Language Services University of Helsinki, 2016. 3) Oshima, Alice & Hogue, Ann. Writing Academic English (Longman Academic Writing #4). New Jersey: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1998. 4) Academic Writing and Academic Writing Skills for university https: //www. academic-englishuk. com/writing 5) Features of Academic Writing http: //www. uefap. com/writing/feature/featfram. htm.

理 学术英语写作 English Academic Writing for Science and Engineering

理 学术英语写作 English Academic Writing for Science and Engineering