Lecture 3 COMSATS Islamabad Enterprise Systems Development CSC

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Lecture 3 COMSATS Islamabad Enterprise Systems Development (CSC 447) Muhammad Usman, Assistant Professor

Lecture 3 COMSATS Islamabad Enterprise Systems Development (CSC 447) Muhammad Usman, Assistant Professor

Agile Development 2001: Kent Beck and 16 other software developers, referred to as “Agile

Agile Development 2001: Kent Beck and 16 other software developers, referred to as “Agile Alliance”, signed the “manifesto for Agile software development”. It stated: Through this work we have come to Value: Individuals and interaction over processes and tool Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right , we values the items on the left more. 2

Agile Methods v Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies that

Agile Methods v Agile software development is a group of software development methodologies that are based on similar principles. v Agile methodologies generally promote a project management process that encourages – frequent inspection and adaptation – a leadership philosophy that encourages team work – a set of engineering best practices that allow for rapid delivery of high-quality software, and a business approach that aligns development with customer needs and company goals 3

What are Agile Methods? v Agile software development is a conceptual framework for undertaking

What are Agile Methods? v Agile software development is a conceptual framework for undertaking software engineering projects. v Most agile methods attempt to minimize risk by developing software in short timeboxes, called iterations, which may typically last one to four weeks. v Each iteration is like a miniature software project of its own, and includes all of the tasks necessary to release the mini-increment of new functionality. 4

Agile Methods v/s Traditional Methods q Agile methods emphasize real time communication, preferably face-to-face,

Agile Methods v/s Traditional Methods q Agile methods emphasize real time communication, preferably face-to-face, over written documents. q Agile methods like XP relies on the close collaboration of activity engaged individuals with ordinary talents and has the ability to flexibly schedule the implementation of functionality, responding to changing business needs. q Reference: Extreme Programming explained: Embrace Change By: Kent Beck with Cynthia Andres; 2 nd ed. , 2005 5

Different Agile Methods? • • • Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Agile Modeling Adaptive Software

Different Agile Methods? • • • Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Agile Modeling Adaptive Software Development (ASD) Crystal Clear and Other Crystal Methodologies Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Feature Driven Development Lean software development Agile Unified Process (AUP) 6

Extreme Programming • Emphasis on four characteristics of agility – Communication: continual interchange between

Extreme Programming • Emphasis on four characteristics of agility – Communication: continual interchange between customers and developers – Simplicity: select the simplest design or implementation – Courage: commitment to delivering functionality early and often – Feedback: loops built into the various activitites during the development process

e. Xtreme Programming (XP) • Philosophy – Take known good practices and push them

e. Xtreme Programming (XP) • Philosophy – Take known good practices and push them to extremes • For example – “If code reviews are good, we’ll review code all the time” – “If testing is good, we’ll test all the time” – “If design is good, we’ll make it part of everybody’s daily business”

e. Xtreme Programming (XP)

e. Xtreme Programming (XP)

Essence of XP • Four variables in software development : – Cost, Time, Quality,

Essence of XP • Four variables in software development : – Cost, Time, Quality, Scope • Four Values – Communication, Simplicity, Feedback, and Courage • Five Principles – Provide feedback, assume simplicity, make incremental changes, embrace change, quality work • 12 Practices

Twelve Facets of XP • The planning game (customer defines value) • Small releases

Twelve Facets of XP • The planning game (customer defines value) • Small releases • Metaphor (common vision, common names) • Simple design • Writing tests first • Refactoring • Pair programming • Collective ownership • Continuous integration (small increments) • Sustainable pace (40 hours/week) • On-site customer • Coding standards

XP (Extreme Programming) XP Practices – Planning game - programmers estimate effort of implementing

XP (Extreme Programming) XP Practices – Planning game - programmers estimate effort of implementing customer stories and customer decides about scope and timing of releases – Short releases - new release every 2 -3 months – Simple design - emphasis on simplest design – Testing - development test driven…* – Refactoring - restructuring and changes to simplify – Pair Programming - 2 people at 1 computer 12

XP (Extreme Programming)……. XP Practices – Collective ownership - anyone can change any part

XP (Extreme Programming)……. XP Practices – Collective ownership - anyone can change any part of the code at any time. – Continuous integration - new builds as soon as code ready – 40 hour week - maximum 40 -hour week. No overtime – On-site customer - customer present and available full-time for team – Coding standards - rules exist and are followed – Open workspace - large room small cubicles – Just rules - team has own rules but can be changed any at time 13

Key Practices…. . Planning – User stories are written. – Release planning creates the

Key Practices…. . Planning – User stories are written. – Release planning creates the schedule. – Make frequent small releases – The Project Velocity is measured. – The project is divided into iterations. – Iteration planning starts each iteration. – Move people around. – A stand-up meeting starts each day. – Fix XP when it breaks. Designing § Simplicity. § Choose a system metaphor. (system of names for your objects that everyone can relate to) § Use CRC cards for design sessions. § Create spike solutions to reduce risk. § Refactor whenever and wherever possible. 14

Key Practices Coding – – – – The customer is always available. Code must

Key Practices Coding – – – – The customer is always available. Code must be written to agreed standards. Code the unit test first. All production code is pair programmed. Only one pair integrates code at a time. Integrate often. No overtime. Testing § § All code must have unit tests. All code must pass all unit tests before it can be released. When a bug is found tests are created. Acceptance tests are run often and the score is published. 15

XP > Practices > “Circles of Life” On-site Customer Coding Standards Metaphor Refactoring Customer

XP > Practices > “Circles of Life” On-site Customer Coding Standards Metaphor Refactoring Customer – Team – Developer Pair – Team – Customer Acceptance Tests Unit Tests Pair Programming Continuous Integration Collective Ownership Simple Design Sustainable Pace Release Planning Synergy > Small Releases 16

When is Extreme Too Extreme? • Extreme programming's practices are interdependent – A vulnerability

When is Extreme Too Extreme? • Extreme programming's practices are interdependent – A vulnerability if one of them is modified • Requirements expressed as a set of test cases must be passed by the software – System passes the tests but is not what the customer is paying for • Refactoring issue – Difficult to rework a system without degrading its architecture

Scrum • In Rugby, a scrum is a way to restart the game after

Scrum • In Rugby, a scrum is a way to restart the game after an interruption, e. g. after a minor foul. • “During a Scrum, the pack must work as a unit, not as 8 individuals. Everybody has a role to play. The important goal to bear in mind is that when you work well together as a unit, the whole is much greater than the sum of the parts. ” The On-Line Rugby Coaching Manual

What is Scrum? • Scrum is not an acronym • Scrum is – a

What is Scrum? • Scrum is not an acronym • Scrum is – a team-based approach – to iteratively, incrementally develop systems and products – when requirements are rapidly changing • Assumes complicated, unpredictable environment • It produces a potentially shippable set of functionality at the end of every iteration

How does Scrum work? • • Small teams (< 10 people) A series of

How does Scrum work? • • Small teams (< 10 people) A series of Sprints (1 -4 weeks) Visible, usable increments Time-boxed

How does Scrum work?

How does Scrum work?

Sprint Rules • Total focus—no unwanted diversion • NO interruptions/changes from the outside •

Sprint Rules • Total focus—no unwanted diversion • NO interruptions/changes from the outside • New work may be uncovered by the team • Very XP-ish 22

What Happens During a Sprint? • Frequent, short Scrum Meetings • Each team produces

What Happens During a Sprint? • Frequent, short Scrum Meetings • Each team produces a visible, usable increment • Each increment builds on prior increments • Clearly defined deliverables and responsibilities • Each team member buys into the assignment 23

What’s a Scrum Meeting? • Short (15 - 30 min) frequent meetings, facilitated by

What’s a Scrum Meeting? • Short (15 - 30 min) frequent meetings, facilitated by the Scrum. Master • All team members attend—even teleworkers • One activity -- Scrum. Master asks each attendee 3 questions 24

What Are The 3 Questions? 1. What have you completed (relative to the Backlog)

What Are The 3 Questions? 1. What have you completed (relative to the Backlog) since the last Scrum meeting? 2. What got in your way of completing this work? 3. What will you do between now and the next Scrum meeting? 25

At the End of a Sprint? • • Status meeting with all stakeholders. Increments

At the End of a Sprint? • • Status meeting with all stakeholders. Increments are delivered. Surprises are reported. ANYTHING can be changed, work can be added, eliminated, re-prioritized. • New estimates and team assignments are made for the next Sprint. • The project can be cancelled. “Experience from earlier increments allows better estimates and planning as project progresses. It's always easier to estimate shorter development periods” 26

Rational Unified Process • • S/W Engineering Process Framework Process Product Workers, Activities, Artifacts,

Rational Unified Process • • S/W Engineering Process Framework Process Product Workers, Activities, Artifacts, Workflows

RUP Phases

RUP Phases

The Architecture of RUP

The Architecture of RUP

You Didn’t Understand the RUP When… • You think that – Inception = requirements

You Didn’t Understand the RUP When… • You think that – Inception = requirements – elaboration = design – construction = implementation. • You think that the purpose of elaboration is to fully and carefully define models, which are translated into code during construction • You think that only prototypes are created in elaboration • You try to define most of the requirements before starting design or implementation. • You try to define most of the design before starting implementation • A “long time” is spent doing requirements or design work before programming starts • You try to plan a project in detail from start to finish, allocating the work to each iteration; you try to speculatively predict all the iterations • An organization wants believable plans and estimates for projects before they have entered the elaboration phase

RUP Support • Templates – http: //sce. uhcl. edu/helm/rationalunifiedprocess/templates. htm – http: //pic. dhe.

RUP Support • Templates – http: //sce. uhcl. edu/helm/rationalunifiedprocess/templates. htm – http: //pic. dhe. ibm. com/infocenter/reqpro/v 7 r 1 m 0/index. jsp? topic=/com. ibm. reqpro. help/administ ering/projects/creating_modifying/r_rup_proj_te mplate. html • Tools – http: //www. rational. com. ar/tools/herramientas. h tml

S/W Development Best Practices • • • Develop software iteratively Manage requirements Use component

S/W Development Best Practices • • • Develop software iteratively Manage requirements Use component based architecture Visually model software Continuously verify software quality ? Control changes to software

Process Models • • • Waterfall Prototyping RAD Incremental Spiral Agile – XP –

Process Models • • • Waterfall Prototyping RAD Incremental Spiral Agile – XP – SCRUM • RUP