- Slides: 15
LEARNING THEORY OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Observational learning is learning through observation.
► CAUSE: Vicarious reinforcement of the models behavior. ► EFFECT: Observers behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model.
INDEPTH LOOK AT THE EFFECTS ► Imitation of the models behavior having characteristics- talent, intelligence, power, popularity, …. ► Reaction to the way model is treated: -> behavior of the model rewarded or punished, observer reproduces the same behavior accordingly.
► Acquire models behavior through observation without performing it and where there is an incentive to do so, display the behavior.
Learning by observation involves four separate processes: • • Attention Retention Production Motivation.
ATTENTION ► The amount of attention an observer pays depends on 1. The characteristics of the model – identification with the model. 2. Characteristics of the observer expectations or levels of emotional arousal.
RETENTION ► The process of not only recognizing, but also remembering the models behavior depends on 1. The ability of the observer to code or structure 2. Mentally or physically rehearse the models actions.
PRODUCTION ► Producing what has been observed requires 1. physical and intellectual capability 2. Skills that the observer has not yet acquired.
MOTIVATION ► Observer can perform the act only when there is motivation or a reason to do so.
► Attention + Retention = acquisition of models behavior. ► Production + Motivation = control performance.
►A persons behavior effects the surrounding environment. ► Environment behavior. ► Human also has its effects on development reflects the complex interaction of the person, the persons behavior and the environment – reciprocal determinism.
IMPACT ON LEARNING 1. Curriculum: Students must get a chance to observe and model a behavior that leads to positive reinforcement. 1. Instruction: Would lead the educators to encourage collaborative learning, since much of the learning happens within important social and environmental contexts.
► Assessment: Assessment may not be accurate if the incentive and supporting environment for the behavior to happen is not provided.