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LEARNING THEORY AND ATTACHMENT Attachment- Lesson 5
Answer the following 1. The behavioural approach says all behaviour is ______? 2. The behavioural approach includes classical conditioning and what other type of conditioning? 3. What did they do to Little Albert? 4. Name all of the classical conditioning concepts e. g. unconditioned stimulus 5. What is positive reinforcement? 6. What is negative reinforcement?
Answers… 1. learnt 2. operant conditioning 3. Classically conditioned him into being scared of a white rat 4. Unconditioned stimulus, Neutral stimulus, Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus, Conditioned response 5. when the consequences of your actions are pleasant, so you repeat the behaviour to again get the positive reinforcer e. g. praise, money. 6. Negative reinforcement- when you repeat a behaviour not because you are receiving a reward or something pleasant but are removing something unpleasant for example you take paracetamol to get rid of your headache which is unpleasant.
Place the concepts into the diagram • Conditioned stimulus • Unconditioned stimulus • Neutral stimulus • Unconditioned response • Conditioned response
Place the concepts into the diagram
Put the blue words in order
Learning Theory – Operant Conditioning
Based on other research- Why might Cheska’s mum not need to be worried? 2.
Based solely on your understanding of learning theory should she be worried? Yes she should be worried! According to learning theory and classical conditioning attachment is learnt by association. Food is an unconditioned stimulus that will naturally makes Cheska feel happy and contented (UCR). Initially the nanny and mother will both be the neutral stimulus as she will be as easily comforted by both It is the person who feeds Cheska, theory says, that will move from being a neutral stimulus to a conditioned stimulus with time and if this is the nanny then Cheska will associate her with the food and the unconditioned response will be attachment being formed to the nanny and NOT the mother.
You could also mention operant conditioning According to operant conditioning the attachment will be formed by a primary reinforcer (food) being paired with whoever feeds her and then over time they will become a secondary reinforcer and will be reinforcing alone. So this will be with the nanny and attachments will be formed with her.
Actually she shouldn’t really worry because -counter evidence- animal studies-young animals don’t attach to who feeds it. Harlow’s monkeys preferred comfort monkey over wire food monkey every time so shows not about food but comfort and as her mother is doing the cuddling and playing and nanny only practical care she will be the more sensitive and so should form attachments with the mother. Schaffer-more than 50% of infants not attached to person that fed them but biological mother with no unconditioned stimulus present so shows it is possible for the mother to be the key attachment figure with sensitive responding Also ignores important concepts such as reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Research shows these lead to attachment so if it was just about food there would be no need for such complex interactions. The mother will be playing with her and so lots more chance for reciprocity and interactional synchrony than
Learning theory essay Essay title Outline and Evaluate the explanation of attachment according to learning theory (6 + 10 marks)
Learning theory essay 1) A linking phrase can be as simple as: However, critics might argue that… 2) Attachment behaviours such as gazing, cooing, smiling and crying have evolved which make an attachment more likely. Additionally, some physical characteristics of a baby which appeal to adults, such as big eyes, make a bond more likely. 3) These studies clearly show that food is of less importance when forming bonds from infants to parents, which is considered the single most important factor for attachment in learning theory.
Learning theory essay 4) These infants had remained bonded to their biological mothers, who were not their primary caregivers. This rejects the concept that food is the primary driver for attachment as predicted by the learning theory. 5) This shows that although it is logical to suggest that a baby needs food to survive, it bonds to adults primarily for emotional needs, contradicting learning theory.
Recap Questions 1. Draw the classical conditioning diagram for attachment. 2. Draw the operant conditioning flow diagram for attachment 3. Learning theory is reductionist-what exactly does that mean? 4. Explain how animal research contradicts learning theory. 5. Explain how Schaffer’s research contradicts learning theory. 6. What other factors does learning theory ignore when explaining attachment?