Learning Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior operates

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Learning Operant Conditioning

Learning Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning § Operant Behavior § operates (acts) on environment § produces consequences §

Operant Conditioning § Operant Behavior § operates (acts) on environment § produces consequences § Respondent Behavior § occurs as an automatic response to stimulus § behavior learned through classical conditioning

Operant Conditioning § type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by

Operant Conditioning § type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment § Law of Effect § Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

Operant Conditioning § B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990) § elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Operant Conditioning § B. F. Skinner (1904 -1990) § elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect § developed behavioral technology

Operant Chamber § Skinner Box § chamber with a bar or key that an

Operant Chamber § Skinner Box § chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer § contains devices to record responses

Operant Conditioning § Reinforcer § any event that strengthens the behavior it follows §

Operant Conditioning § Reinforcer § any event that strengthens the behavior it follows § Shaping § operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

Operant Conditioning § Positive § Strengthens behavior by presenting a positive stimulus (something desired)

Operant Conditioning § Positive § Strengthens behavior by presenting a positive stimulus (something desired) § Negative § Strengthens behavior by removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus

Principles of Reinforcement § Primary Reinforcer § innately reinforcing stimulus § i. e. ,

Principles of Reinforcement § Primary Reinforcer § innately reinforcing stimulus § i. e. , satisfies a biological need § Secondary Reinforcer § stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer § Learned reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement § Continuous Reinforcement § reinforcing the desired response each time it

Schedules of Reinforcement § Continuous Reinforcement § reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs § Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement § reinforcing a response only part of the time § results in slower acquisition § greater resistance to extinction

Schedules of Reinforcement § Fixed Ratio (FR) § reinforces a response only after a

Schedules of Reinforcement § Fixed Ratio (FR) § reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses § faster you respond the more rewards you get § very high rate of responding § like piecework pay

Schedules of Reinforcement § Variable Ratio (VR) § reinforces a response after an unpredictable

Schedules of Reinforcement § Variable Ratio (VR) § reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses § like gambling, fishing § very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability § High rate of response

Schedules of Reinforcement § Fixed Interval (FI) § reinforces a response only after a

Schedules of Reinforcement § Fixed Interval (FI) § reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed § response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

Schedules of Reinforcement § Variable Interval (VI) § reinforces a response at unpredictable time

Schedules of Reinforcement § Variable Interval (VI) § reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals § produces slow steady responding § like pop quiz, busy phone

Schedules of Reinforcement Number of responses 1000 Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval 750

Schedules of Reinforcement Number of responses 1000 Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval 750 Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 500 Variable Interval 250 Steady responding 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (minutes) 60 70 80

Punishment § aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows § powerful controller

Punishment § aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows § powerful controller of unwanted behavior

Drawbacks to Punishment z Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. People will continue to

Drawbacks to Punishment z Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. People will continue to perform the act of punishment is avoidable. z Punishment models behavior used to punish. z Punishment suppresses unwanted behavior, but does not teach desired behavior z When punishment is unpredictable and inescapable, helplessness and depression may occur.

Reinforcement vs. Punishment Something wanted Something not wanted Given to you Positive Reinforcement Positive

Reinforcement vs. Punishment Something wanted Something not wanted Given to you Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Taken from you Negative Punishment Negative Reinforcement

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Cognitive Map § mental representation of the layout of

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Cognitive Map § mental representation of the layout of one’s environment § Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it § Latent Learning § learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

Cognition and Operant Conditioning z. Cognitive Process: y. Organism is an information seeker using

Cognition and Operant Conditioning z. Cognitive Process: y. Organism is an information seeker using relations among events to form its own adaptive representation of the world. y. How much does the first event predict the second y. Predictability y. Expectancy

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Overjustification Effect § the effect of promising a reward

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Overjustification Effect § the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do § the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Intrinsic Motivation § Desire to perform a behavior for

Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Intrinsic Motivation § Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective § Extrinsic Motivation § Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

Operant vs Classical Conditioning

Operant vs Classical Conditioning