Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational

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Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Definition of Learning is “any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.

Definition of Learning is “any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience. ” – Conditioning: • The acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli.

Two Types of Conditioning • Classical (C. C. ): – a response naturally elicited

Two Types of Conditioning • Classical (C. C. ): – a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus • Operant (O. C. ): – behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Pavlov

Pavlov

It all starts with a REFLEX

It all starts with a REFLEX

It all starts with a REFLEX Automatic

It all starts with a REFLEX Automatic

It all starts with a REFLEX Unconscious

It all starts with a REFLEX Unconscious

It all starts with a REFLEX Involuntary

It all starts with a REFLEX Involuntary

It all starts with a REFLEX Inborn

It all starts with a REFLEX Inborn

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Response

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Response

REFLEX Leads to Stimulus Response

REFLEX Leads to Stimulus Response

REFLEX Elicits Stimulus Response

REFLEX Elicits Stimulus Response

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Puff of air to the eye Response Blink

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Puff of air to the eye Response Blink

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Light in the eye Response Pupillary Constriction

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Light in the eye Response Pupillary Constriction

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Pain Response Withdrawal

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Pain Response Withdrawal

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Meat Powder in mouth Response Salivation

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Meat Powder in mouth Response Salivation

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Electric Shock Response Fear

REFLEX Causes Stimulus Electric Shock Response Fear

REFLEX Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response

REFLEX Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response

REFLEX UCS UCR

REFLEX UCS UCR

Click ? ?

Click ? ?

Some stimuli do nothing Click

Some stimuli do nothing Click

Some stimuli do nothing Footsteps

Some stimuli do nothing Footsteps

Some stimuli do nothing Metronome

Some stimuli do nothing Metronome

Some stimuli do nothing Rabbit

Some stimuli do nothing Rabbit

Some stimuli do nothing Hiss

Some stimuli do nothing Hiss

Some stimuli do nothing Neutral Stimulus

Some stimuli do nothing Neutral Stimulus

Some stimuli do nothing NS

Some stimuli do nothing NS

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing UCS UCR

Learning involves repeated pairing UCS UCR

Learning involves repeated pairing NS + UCS UCR

Learning involves repeated pairing NS + UCS UCR

After repeated pairing NS + CS UCR CR

After repeated pairing NS + CS UCR CR

After repeated pairing CS CR

After repeated pairing CS CR

After repeated pairing CS CR

After repeated pairing CS CR

Learning involves repeated pairing NS Hiss + UCS Puff UCR Blink

Learning involves repeated pairing NS Hiss + UCS Puff UCR Blink

After repeated pairing NS Hiss + CS UCS Hiss Puff CR UCR Blink

After repeated pairing NS Hiss + CS UCS Hiss Puff CR UCR Blink

After repeated pairing CS Hiss CR Blink

After repeated pairing CS Hiss CR Blink

After repeated pairing CS Hiss CR Blink

After repeated pairing CS Hiss CR Blink

REFLEX Causes

REFLEX Causes

Some stimuli do nothing

Some stimuli do nothing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

Learning involves repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing

After repeated pairing the organism has formed an association between the once neutral stimulus

After repeated pairing the organism has formed an association between the once neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.

An example

An example

It all begins with a REFLEX Learning Classical Conditioning A relatively simple, automatic, stimulus-response

It all begins with a REFLEX Learning Classical Conditioning A relatively simple, automatic, stimulus-response sequence that is mediated by the CNS • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS). – Elicits a response in the absence of learning. • Unconditioned response (UCR). – The reflexive response to a stimulus in the absence of learning. UCS UCR • No learning here. Organism is born with this reflex Reflexes Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

New Reflexes from Old Learning Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus is then regularly

New Reflexes from Old Learning Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus is then regularly paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

New Reflexes from Old • Conditioned stimulus (CS). – • An initially neutral stimulus

New Reflexes from Old • Conditioned stimulus (CS). – • An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned response (CR). – – – A response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus. Occurs after the CS is associated with the US. Identical to the US Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Classical Conditioning Diagram Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Reflex NS + UCS

Classical Conditioning Diagram Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Reflex NS + UCS (BELL) (PUFF) CS (BELL) Observational Learning UCR (BLINK)

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Prior to conditioning UCS (food powder in

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Prior to conditioning UCS (food powder in mouth) UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) Neutral stimulus CS (tone) CR (salivation) Conditioning UCS (food powder) After conditioning CS (tone) CR (salivation) Ecological Learning Observational Learning

In Watson’s Little Albert study, the conditioned response was 1. Salivation 2. Nausea 3.

In Watson’s Little Albert study, the conditioned response was 1. Salivation 2. Nausea 3. Fear 10

In Pavlov’s original experiments, the neutral stimulus was the 1. Sound of the footsteps

In Pavlov’s original experiments, the neutral stimulus was the 1. Sound of the footsteps 2. Taste of the meat powder 3. Sight of the white lab coat 10

In Pavlov’s original experiments, the conditioned stimulus was the 1. Sound of the footsteps

In Pavlov’s original experiments, the conditioned stimulus was the 1. Sound of the footsteps 2. Taste of the meat powder 3. Sight of the white lab coat 10

When you first went to the dentist as a child, you heard the highpitched

When you first went to the dentist as a child, you heard the highpitched whine of the drill, and had no reaction. After you’ve had your first filling, the drill causes a nervous reaction - cold hands, increased heart rate and blood-pressure, etc. The drill became the 1. Conditioned Stimulus 2. Unconditioned stimulus 3. Conditioned Response 10

From the last question, the anxiety is the 1. Neutral Stimulus 2. Conditioned Stimulus

From the last question, the anxiety is the 1. Neutral Stimulus 2. Conditioned Stimulus 3. Conditioned Response 10

The neutral stimulus was the 1. Sight of the dentist 2. Sound of the

The neutral stimulus was the 1. Sight of the dentist 2. Sound of the drill 3. Anxiety 10

Although you’ve never been afraid of flying, the last time you flew the plane

Although you’ve never been afraid of flying, the last time you flew the plane went into a nosedive for nearly a minute. Now when you fly, you get extremely nervous. In this example, flying is the 1. Conditioned response 2. Conditioned stimulus 3. Unconditioned response 10

From the previous example, what is the unconditioned response? 1. The sight of the

From the previous example, what is the unconditioned response? 1. The sight of the airplane 2. Salivating 3. Fear 10

Basic Rules of Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning • The more association trials, the better

Basic Rules of Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning • The more association trials, the better the conditioning • CS and US must be closely linked in time • Physically intense stimuli are conditioned more easily • Some responses are more easily conditioned than others Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Contingency Learning Classical Conditioning Contingency Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Contingency Learning Classical Conditioning Contingency Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Extinction – Weakening of a conditioned association in the

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Extinction – Weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus or reinforcer Spontaneous recovery – Reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery Learning Classical Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning

Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery Learning Classical Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning • Higher order conditioning •

Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning • Higher order conditioning • Stimulus generalization • Discrimination learning Observational Learning

Higher-Order Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus

Higher-Order Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus (CS) by being paired with an existing conditioned stimulus (CS). Higher-Order Cond. Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Stimulus Generalization Learning Classical Conditioning • Occurs when a new stimulus that resembles the

Stimulus Generalization Learning Classical Conditioning • Occurs when a new stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus, elicits the conditioned response. Stimulus Generalization Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Stimulus Discrimination Learning Classical Conditioning • The tendency to respond differently to two or

Stimulus Discrimination Learning Classical Conditioning • The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli. • In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the condition stimulus (CS) fails to evoke a conditioned response (CR). Discrimination Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Real-Life Examples Learning Classical Conditioning • • • Drug overdoses Smoking: environmental cues Systematic

Real-Life Examples Learning Classical Conditioning • • • Drug overdoses Smoking: environmental cues Systematic desensitization Advertising: sex appeal Taste aversion Conditioning and the immune system Examples Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Abnormal Behavior and CC Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning NS + UCS

Abnormal Behavior and CC Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning NS + UCS (Dog) (Pain from Bite) CS (Dog) CR (Fear) UCR (Fear) Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Operant Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning The consequences that follow a

Operant Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning The consequences that follow a behavior make that behavior more or less likely to occur in the future. • Make behavior more likely – Reinforcement • Make behavior less likely - Punishment Observational Learning

Operant Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning • Operant behaviors are different

Operant Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning • Operant behaviors are different from the responses involved in classical conditioning –They are voluntarily emitted –Those involved in classical conditioning are elicited by stimuli. Observational Learning

ALL reinforcers increase the likelihood that a response will become more frequent

ALL reinforcers increase the likelihood that a response will become more frequent

Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning • What is a reinforcer? – Definition: a reinforcer is

Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning • What is a reinforcer? – Definition: a reinforcer is any stimulus which, when delivered to a subject, increases the probability that a subject will emit the most recent response. • Primary reinforcers, e. g. , food • Secondary reinforcers, e. g. , praise – One can only know if a stimulus is a reinforcer based on the increased probability of occurrence of a subject’s behavior Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Positive reinforcers – Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning Stimulus,

Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Positive reinforcers – Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning Stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior, that increases the probability of that response happening again Negative reinforcers – Removal of an unpleasant stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior, that increases the probability of that response happening again

Examples of Consequences Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Examples of Consequences Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Reinforcement Learning Primary reinforcers – Reinforcers, such as food and sex, that have an

Reinforcement Learning Primary reinforcers – Reinforcers, such as food and sex, that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism Secondary reinforcers – Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by their learned association with primary reinforcers (also called conditioned reinforcers) Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Operant Conditioning Learning Observational Learning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Continuous reinforcement – Reinforcement schedule in

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Continuous reinforcement – Reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforced Partial reinforcement – Reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced (also called intermittent reinforcement) Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Ratio schedules – Provide reward after a certain

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Ratio schedules – Provide reward after a certain number of responses Interval schedules – Provide reward after a certain time interval Fixed Ratio (FR) Variable Ratio (VR) Fixed Interval (FI) Variable Interval (VI) Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Fixed Ratio (FR) Rewards appear after

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Fixed Ratio (FR) Rewards appear after a certain set number of responses Variable Ratio (VR) e. g. factory workers getting paid after Fixed Interval every 10 cases of (FI) product are Variable Interval completed (VI) Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Fixed Ratio (FR) Rewards appear after

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Fixed Ratio (FR) Rewards appear after a certain number of responses, but that Variable Ratio number varies from (VR) reinforcer to reinforcer Fixed Interval (FI) e. g. slot machine pay Variable Interval -offs (VI) Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Rewards appear after Fixed Ratio (FR) a certain

Schedules of Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Rewards appear after Fixed Ratio (FR) a certain fixed amount of time, regardless of number Variable Ratio of responses, as long (VR) as the response Fixed Interval occurs during the (FI) interval. Variable Interval (VI) e. g. weekly or monthly paychecks Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement Rewards appear after Fixed Ratio (FR) a certain amount of time,

Schedules of Reinforcement Rewards appear after Fixed Ratio (FR) a certain amount of time, but that amount varies from trial to Variable Ratio trial, as long as the (VR) response occurs during the interval. Fixed Interval (FI) e. g. random visits Variable Interval from the boss who delivers praise (VI) Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Schedules of Reinforcement • Simple reinforcement schedules produce characteristic response patterns • Steeper lines

Schedules of Reinforcement • Simple reinforcement schedules produce characteristic response patterns • Steeper lines mean higher response rates • Ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedules Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Partial Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Partial Reinforcement Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

A rat is given a food pellet every time it presses a bar 7

A rat is given a food pellet every time it presses a bar 7 times. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

An instructor gives an exam every Friday afternoon. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio

An instructor gives an exam every Friday afternoon. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

Another instructor gives pop quizzes at random times. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio

Another instructor gives pop quizzes at random times. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

A migrant worker gets $3. 00 for every ten baskets of cherries he picks.

A migrant worker gets $3. 00 for every ten baskets of cherries he picks. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

Every time Mary puts her Charlie Card into the turnstile, she is allowed on

Every time Mary puts her Charlie Card into the turnstile, she is allowed on the T 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

A salesman makes calls on 14 potential customers per day. 1. 2. 3. 4.

A salesman makes calls on 14 potential customers per day. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

You call your best friend from high school, and keep getting a busy signal.

You call your best friend from high school, and keep getting a busy signal. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

John stands at the T stop and peeks around the corner to see if

John stands at the T stop and peeks around the corner to see if the train is coming. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

Coming to work on Friday results in a paycheck for work completed during the

Coming to work on Friday results in a paycheck for work completed during the week 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

A friend of yours wants you to study more, so she comes to your

A friend of yours wants you to study more, so she comes to your room with chocolate cookies every so often. If she finds you studying then you get a cookie. 1. 2. 3. 4. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval 10

Persistence of Avoidance Learning Classical Conditioning • Negatively reinforced responses show slower extinction than

Persistence of Avoidance Learning Classical Conditioning • Negatively reinforced responses show slower extinction than positively reinforced responses Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Problems with Punishment Learning Classical Conditioning • Too uninformative – only tells learner what

Problems with Punishment Learning Classical Conditioning • Too uninformative – only tells learner what NOT to do, not what TO do. • Tends to work well only when punisher present (unlike reinforcement) - this often accidentally leads to a partial schedule of reinforcement. • Tends to cause fear in learner - (who stops ALL behavior) – classically conditioned response • Constant effectiveness requires escalation • Often the easiest and quickest consequence, but rarely the most effective at changing behavior. Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Alternatives to Punishment Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning • Extinction • Reinforcing preferred activities

Alternatives to Punishment Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning • Extinction • Reinforcing preferred activities – Premack principle • Shaping Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Shaping Learning Classical Conditioning • To teach complex behaviors, may need to reinforce successive

Shaping Learning Classical Conditioning • To teach complex behaviors, may need to reinforce successive approximations of a desired response. • For example, training animals, getting children to make their beds. Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Shaping Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Shaping Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

The Death of Behaviorism Tolman’s Latent Learning

The Death of Behaviorism Tolman’s Latent Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Limitations to Pavlov’s and Skinner’s Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning • Preparedness – some

Limitations to Pavlov’s and Skinner’s Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning • Preparedness – some associations are learned more easily than others (e. g. associating taste with nausea is easier than associating noise with nausea). – One-trial learning – Spider and snake phobias are easier to condition than flower and rock phobias. – Species specific behaviors sometimes hard to modify Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Conditioned Taste Aversions Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Biological tendency in which an organism

Conditioned Taste Aversions Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Biological tendency in which an organism learns to avoid food with a certain taste after a single experience, if eating it is followed by illness Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Application of psychology: Learning the wrong things Learning Classical Conditioning • What is superstitious

Application of psychology: Learning the wrong things Learning Classical Conditioning • What is superstitious behavior? – non-contingent reinforcement – examples of superstitions • Learned helplessness – the cessation of all behavior as a result of intense punishment – dog’s behavior in electrified cage – wife’s behavior in an abusive marriage Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Social Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning • Social cognitive theories

Social Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning • Social cognitive theories emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained: – through observation and imitation of others, – positive consequences, – cognitive processing such as plans, expectations, and beliefs. • Observational learning involves learning new responses by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience.

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963). Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963). Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning • Nursery school children watched a film of 2 men (Johnny and Rocky) playing with toys. • Johnny refuses to share and Rocky hits him, ending up with all the toys. • Children who watched the video were significantly more violent than children in a control group.

Observational Learning • Bandura’s Bobo doll study Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning

Observational Learning • Bandura’s Bobo doll study Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Bandura’s Results Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning

Bandura’s Results Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Ecological Learning Observational Learning