Learners Narratives Reallife Stories about Constructivist Developmental Pedagogy

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Learners’ Narratives: Real-life Stories about Constructivist. Developmental Pedagogy Improving Student Learning Theory & Practice,

Learners’ Narratives: Real-life Stories about Constructivist. Developmental Pedagogy Improving Student Learning Theory & Practice, 2002 Marcia Baxter Magolda [email protected] edu

Overview n n n Introduce constructive-developmental pedagogy Introduce self-authorship Share learners’ narratives re: meaningmaking

Overview n n n Introduce constructive-developmental pedagogy Introduce self-authorship Share learners’ narratives re: meaningmaking Introduce one framework to promote learning & self-authorship Share learners’ stories about how the framework promoted their learning

Constructive-Developmental Pedagogy n n students construct knowledge by organizing and making meaning of their

Constructive-Developmental Pedagogy n n students construct knowledge by organizing and making meaning of their experience this construction takes place in the context of their evolving assumptions about knowledge itself and students’ role in creating it Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1999). Creating Contexts for Learning & Self-Authorship. Nashville, TN, Vanderbilt Press.

“over their heads” n n n Robert Kegan (1994) suggests that much of what

“over their heads” n n n Robert Kegan (1994) suggests that much of what contemporary society expects of people is over their heads Educators’ expectations of students require ways of making meaning beyond those students currently hold Resolution requires building a bridge to learners’ development

A Developmental Bridge n “a holding environment that provides both welcoming acknowledgement to exactly

A Developmental Bridge n “a holding environment that provides both welcoming acknowledgement to exactly who the person is right now as he or she is, and fosters the person’s psychological evolution. As such, a holding environment is a tricky, transitional culture, an evolutionary bridge, a context for crossing over” (Kegan, 1994, p. 43) Kegan, R. (1994). In Over Our Heads. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Self-Authorship n n the capacity to internally define one’s beliefs, identity, and relations with

Self-Authorship n n the capacity to internally define one’s beliefs, identity, and relations with the world critical thinking, ability to construct knowledge a coherent sense of self an appreciation of diversity; a productive construction of relations with others to guide adult life

3 Assumptions/Dimensions of Development n n n what individuals learn and claim to know

3 Assumptions/Dimensions of Development n n n what individuals learn and claim to know is grounded in how they construct their knowledge - how do I know? how individuals construct knowledge and use their knowledge is closely tied to their sense of self - who am I? how individuals construct their sense of self is closely tied to how they construct themselves in relation to others - what kind of relationships do I want?

Journey toward Self. Authorship n n n How do I know? Shift from believing

Journey toward Self. Authorship n n n How do I know? Shift from believing authority (external) to developing own beliefs (internal) Who am I? Shift from defining self through others (external) to choosing own values (internal) What relationships do I want? Shift from acting to acquire approval (external) to being true to self (internal) Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Absolute Knowing n n n View knowledge as certain or absolute Learner’s role is

Absolute Knowing n n n View knowledge as certain or absolute Learner’s role is to acquire knowledge [truth] from instructor Instructor’s role is to communicate knowledge effectively Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and Reasoning in College. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Transitional Knowing n n n View knowledge as partially certain & partially uncertain Learner’s

Transitional Knowing n n n View knowledge as partially certain & partially uncertain Learner’s role is to understand in uncertain areas Instructor’s role is to provide structure to help students understand Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and Reasoning in College. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Following External Formulas n n n Believe authority’s plans; how “you” know Define self

Following External Formulas n n n Believe authority’s plans; how “you” know Define self through external others Act in relationships to acquire approval Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Crossroads n n n Question plans; see need for own vision Realize dilemmas of

Crossroads n n n Question plans; see need for own vision Realize dilemmas of external selfdefinition; see need for internal identity Realize dilemmas of external approval; see need to bring self to relationship Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Independent Knowing n n n View knowledge as uncertain – everyone has own beliefs

Independent Knowing n n n View knowledge as uncertain – everyone has own beliefs Learner’s role is to think for self Instructor’s role is to promote exchange of opinions and independent thinking Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and Reasoning in College. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Contextual Knowing n n n View knowledge as relative to context; judge on basis

Contextual Knowing n n n View knowledge as relative to context; judge on basis of evidence in context Learner’s role is to compare perspectives, think through problems, integrate & apply knowledge Instructor’s role is to promote evaluative discussion of perspectives Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and Reasoning in College. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Authoring One’s Own Life n n n Choose own beliefs; how I know in

Authoring One’s Own Life n n n Choose own beliefs; how I know in context of external knowledge claims Choose own values, identity in context of external forces Act in relationships to be true to self; mutually negotiating how needs are met Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Internal Foundation n Grounded in internal belief system Grounded in internal coherent sense of

Internal Foundation n Grounded in internal belief system Grounded in internal coherent sense of self Grounded in mutuality Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Reflective Interlude n n What phases of the journey are prevalent among your students?

Reflective Interlude n n What phases of the journey are prevalent among your students? How does their phase of the journey affect their learning in your courses?

Framework to Promote Self. Authorship n n 3 Assumptions Knowledge is complex & socially

Framework to Promote Self. Authorship n n 3 Assumptions Knowledge is complex & socially constructed Self is central to knowledge construction Authority & expertise are shared in mutual knowledge construction among peers n n 3 Principles Validate learners as knowers Situate learning in learners’ experience Define learning as mutually constructing meaning Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2001). Making Their Own Way. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Interactive Lecture: Practicing Scientific Inquiry n n n Experiential examples or data to analyze

Interactive Lecture: Practicing Scientific Inquiry n n n Experiential examples or data to analyze & discuss Oral interpretation of knowledge – making sense of phenomena in large or small groups Synthesis or unresolved exchanges Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1999). Creating Contexts for Learning & Self-Authorship. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Investigating Together: Discovering Math Structure n n n Teacher provides an investigation topic Students

Investigating Together: Discovering Math Structure n n n Teacher provides an investigation topic Students investigate Teacher asks “What did you find out? ” Students share individual or group discoveries Teacher draws ideas out, helps students expand them, connects to existing knowledge Teacher/students synthesize discoveries Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1999). Creating Contexts for Learning & Self-Authorship. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Using Narrative: Educational Story Telling n n n Large group experiences oral narrative [performance,

Using Narrative: Educational Story Telling n n n Large group experiences oral narrative [performance, story, film] Students individually experience related written narratives [readings] Seminar groups explore the meaning of the narratives [draw out reactions, explore possible meanings, analyze meanings for implications for educational practice] Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1999). Creating Contexts for Learning & Self-Authorship. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Reflective Interlude n n To what extent is this framework evident in your teaching?

Reflective Interlude n n To what extent is this framework evident in your teaching? How could you make this framework more evident in your teaching?