- Slides: 10
LAYERS OF THE EARTH By: Wyatt Hunter & Nathan Kindt
LAYERS OF THE EARTH • The main layers of the Earth are the Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, and Crust. • Inner Core- Made of solid Nickel and Iron. • Outer Core- Liquid layer of core that allows poles to pass through. • Mantle- Largest layer of semi liquid Earth.
INNER CORE • The inner core is the densest part of our planet as well as the hottest, reaching roughly 4, 400 -6, 000 degrees Celsius. • The dense inner core is made of mainly iron and nickel held together with the extreme forces of gravity. • The radius of the inner core is roughly 1, 220 km.
OUTER CORE • Unlike the Inner Core, the Outer Core is liquid and swirls around the Inner Core and creates a magnetic field. • Although the Inner Core is solid, its counterpart, the Outer Core is not under the same amount of pressure and is liquid. • The Outer Core is roughly 2, 200 km thick and is between 4, 500 and 5, 500 degrees Celcius.
MANTLE • The Earth’s Mantle is mainly solid but is also semi-liquid, as you travel deeper it turns into more liquid. • The temperature of the mantle ranges from 1, 000 degrees Celsius, at its boundary, to 3, 700 degrees Celsius, at its core. • The Mantle fill up roughly %84 percent of the Earth’s total volume and magma erupts through volcanoes and vents due the extreme pressure the magma is subjected to.
CRUST • The Crust is the outer most layer as well as the thinnest and is home to all life on Earth. • The crust of the Earth is split into many floating plates that drift on the outer layer of the mantle. • These plate can meet at three types of boundaries. Convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries. • The most well known area where land is continually being repurposed for crust is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. • The Ridge’s counterpart, The Ring Of Fire, is the area where a plate is continually being submerged into the mantle.
CRUST (CONTINUED) • The Crust creates %1 of the Earth’s total mass and is constantly changing due to continental drift. • The average temperature of the Crust ranges from 200 -400 degrees Celsius at certain areas. • The outermost layer of the Earth is the only layer made entirely of hardened minerals and rocks that extend to 40 km deep.
OCEANIC VS. CONTINENTAL Oceanic Continental • Oceanic crust is mainly based on basalt minerals. • Continental crust mainly composed of types of Granite. • Extends 5 -10 km beneath the ocean floor. • The two most abundant minerals in the crust are Aluminum and Silicate. • The oldest area of the oceanic crust is near 270 million years old. • Although less dense than oceanic crust, Continental crust extends to 70 km deep.
CONCLUSION • The super heated Inner Core is composed of mainly iron and nickel and kept solid due to the extreme gravity it is subjected to and can reach roughly 4, 400 -6, 000 degrees Celsius. • The second innermost layer, the Outer Core, Is the liquid layer that creates the magnetic field by swirling around the Outer Core and is between 4, 500 and 5, 500 degrees Celcius. • The Mantle is the semi-liquid layer that create the majority of the Earths mass and allows the crust to float above it and ranges from 1, 000 degrees Celsius, at its boundary, to 3, 700 degrees Celsius, at its core. • The Crust is made of Oceanic and Continental Crust, creates an area for life to flourish, and makes up roughly %1 of the Earths total mass.
SOURCE • http: //education. nationalgeographic. com/